The incubation period of meningococcal disease
Among all infections that can be transmitted from the carrier to a healthy person, it should be meningococcal. The causative agent of meningococcal infection is very rare, not every therapist or pediatrician is confronted with it in their professional practice. The same point applies to students of medical faculties – many are familiar with the infection only on information from textbooks, they do not have practices. The above points define what in the manifestation of symptoms characteristic of meningococcal disease, not many doctors immediately determine the cause of health problems. Lost time at diagnosis, especially in the case of infection in the body can lead to a strong development of the disease and the complications. Therefore, we consider the characteristics of the manifestation of such infections, as expressed by the incubation period and symptoms, what treatment.
What is meningococcal disease?
Anthroponoses infection causes disease, the pathogen is transmitted by airborne droplets through close contact. The infection is characterized by a large number of clinical manifestations, for example, meningitis go severe sepsis.
To the characteristics of the pathogen include:
- Gram-negative diplococci is transmitted by airborne droplets.
- The pathogen is very sensitive to features of the environment. An example is the fact that at high temperature, high or low humidity, when exposed to direct sunlight killed pathogen rather quickly.
- After entering the body the virus lives no more than 30 minutes. If not there is a division of the required number of cells of the pathogen due to the response of the immune system, the infection does not occur.
Had identified more than 13 types of the virus, the most common are A, B, C.
The incubation period of meningococcal disease is from the spirit of the day to one week. When considering the incubation period should note the following points:
- The clinical picture can be divided into 3 main syndromes: meningeal, toxic, hypertensive. Such a classification of meningococcal disease in use for many years. Special attention should be paid to infectious-toxic syndrome, as from intoxication cases could die. Note that children under the age of 1 year other syndromes are clearly not occur.
- The infection after entering the body starts to behave very active, symptoms occur almost immediately. Especially rapidly the disease occurs in children. In some cases the mother may specify the exact time when the manifestation of symptoms.
- Because of the strong effects on the body incubation exhibits a strong temperature may reach 40 degrees Celsius. Appear chills, severe headache.
- Other symptoms can be called the reaction of the digestive system infection: nausea, vomiting, excessive thirst due to dehydration.
- Significantly increased irritability to light, sharp odor, a loud sound.
- At an early age to recognize meningitis appeared convulsions. It should be noted that the age of one year other symptoms can occur due to incomplete development of the organism. At older ages, the occurrence of seizures may indicate that the disease is more severe.
- In some cases, in children meningitis causes a disorder of consciousness at various levels. Examples would include the emergence of hallucinations or delusions, which is also associated with high temperature, which disrupts the brain.
- The present study shows that after 12 hours the development of the disease starts with infection of the meninges. After going through the first day there is the likelihood of developing muscle weakness.
- Meningitis can occur in a complex form when there is a strong intoxication. She manifested a partial or full loss of reflexes.
- 3-4 days in children, the disease leads to put on the face and other skin areas, in some cases, the mucous membrane of the mouth.
Aboveinformation determines that the meningitis is a serious disease that can develop in different ways depending on the age at which it occurs and the General condition of the body. In some cases the disease appears in severe form, which can lead to death even when assisting the doctors.
Severe forms of the disease
Under certain circumstances, the virus also captures and cranial nerves. This moment determines the possibility of nerve lesions of the face, the oculomotor nerve, in varying degrees, leading to strabismus or facial asymmetry. Quite often there is a hearing. This problem is especially evident in young children at various stages of disease development. As a result of exposure to the ear there comes a partial or total deafness.
The most severe form can be called the development of the disease with cranial nerves, resulting in edema of the brain, and the patient goes into a coma.
Manifestation of the rash
The main sign of the appearance of infection in the body become rashes. When considering this symptom should pay attention to the following points:
- The rash may appear as early as after 4 hours of the appearance of other symptoms. When you do this, the sooner this process, the more difficult will be affected.
- In severe cases there is gangrene of the phalanges, feet, fingers, ears.
- Hemorrhagic rash also occurs on the shins, eyelids, thighs.
- The typical rash can be of different sizes: small specks, large ekhimoz. The form may be different, often in the Central part of necrosis is developed. Also observations have shown that it may cause hemorrhage, the diameter of which is 15 centimeters. Such rash acts on the skin, has a seal.
- The development of necrosis determines that after recovery at the place of scarring. In bright manifestation of symptoms in the form of large lesions with necrosis in some cases it is necessary to carry out plastic surgery, as the scars may stand out on the skin, over time, they will not pass.
There are many varieties of pimples that can cover the body. Rash immediately suspicious of other people, as in many cases, the rash looks quite intimidating due to the occurrence of cell necrosis.
The defeat of the joints and membrane of the eye
A few years ago, every manifestation of disease has been damage the joints. The studies indicated that in 50% of cases the joints Borealis with a brilliant manifestation of symptoms, but in the other 11% was the defeat of the sheath of the eyeball. At present, joint damage occurs rarely. In children revealed quite rare, but the first symptom can be called the appearance of bags under.
Eye suffer less. Currently, this problem is diagnosed in 1.8%. Diagnosis of meningococcal disease in recent time determines that some symptoms are gradually fading, but there are new complications that arise in the provision of the wrong treatment.
What is a complication?
Considering the disease is dangerous because there can be various complications. They are a greater threat to the health and lives of people. The most common problem is acute swelling of the brain and toxic shock. These complications in many cases lead to health problems that require special attention.
The special features of the acute swallowed and swelling of the brain include:
- The problem develops at the end of the first or second day. Such heavy development is possible even when the typical course of disease.
- The rapid flow of meningitis, emotional stress, agitation and many other problems can lead to loss of consciousness.
- Due to the damaging effects of infection is the probability of klonico-tonic seizures.
- Blood pressure for starters labile, however, there is a predisposition to it a significant reduction.
- There is a rapid increase in shortness of breath, which takes place with the appearance of significant noise.
You should consider the moment that the fatal outcome is possible due to respiratory arrest due to paralysis of the respiratory center. It is worth considering that cardiac activity can last for another 5 minutes. Therefore, a qualified patient is required immediately.
The rapid flow of meningococcemia manifests infectious-toxic shock. High fever leads to the fact that in patients the temperature comes to the critical normal and subnormal numbers. Pathogenesis is manifested by the fact that in the first hours the patient is still conscious despite striking manifestation of symptoms. Blood pressure gradually decreases, and then starts severe shortness of breath. Because of this the disease can cause convulsions.
Shock is very dangerous to humans. Through 6-60 hours after the symptoms of shock, the patient may die. This is due to the acute of the disease that leads to swelling of the brain,intoxication and violations of cardiovascular activity. If there is a combination of several symptoms at the same time, death can occur after 12-24 hours from the moment of their manifestation.
The source of the disease
The source of the disease may be different. Often the infection is transmitted from the patient or bacillicarriers healthy person. When considering the sources of the disease should pay attention to the following points:
- More dangerous sources of infection – people with catarrhal phenomena from the nasopharynx.
- You should consider the point that the source of the disease can become healthy carriers.
- A symptom of disease in the body is the increase in concentration the number of carriers of the meningococcus.
- Children often contracted during prolonged contact in the same room. Especially the problem occurs in the case where children are for a long time in the sleeping room. Children's bodies are most susceptible to this infection, and only in 0.5% of cases, there is the manifestation of the clinical picture.
In childhood very high probability of fatal outcome, especially in the age of one year. The main reason for getting meningococcal sepsis and the development of infectious-toxic shock. Various complications can also lead to death. Enough important time to diagnose. Only with timely treatment there is a possibility to exclude the probability of death. Timely diagnosis in specialized centers allows you to exclude the likelihood of complications and symptoms that lead to death.
As previously noted, meningitis is pretty rare that determines the complexity of diagnosis. A regular pediatrician or a therapist is rare with meningitis, so in the initial stages, if the disease does not develop quickly, can be put not the correct diagnosis. Also, many doctors familiar with the treatment only in theory.
Some laboratory studies allow the identification of the considered virus in the body. Such studies apply:
- Direct microscopic examination is performed by sampling from the nasopharynx, staples damaged skin, smears of blood, and the sample appeared put. The obtained samples looking for cocci or diplococci. A similar study does not give accurate result only indicates the presence of of meningococcal disease in the body.
- General analysis of blood. When taking blood count determines the concentration of white blood cells. Some medical sources indicate that in mild course of the disease a blood test can be quite normal, that is, this study does not indicate a problem. However, this statement is not verified and is questionable, since the emergence of the pathogen should lead to the formation of white blood cells – the body's natural reaction to hit and the activation of the virus.
- Quite often the investigation of CSF. In a sterile environment, with all the established standards is carried out lumbalna puncture. A similar study involves the sample for the three experiments: cytological, biochemical and bacterial test. The sample should be examined within 2 hours after his capture. It should be noted that late diagnosis, when infectious diseases meningococcal disease has developed or manifested in anti-hypertensive form, the cerebrospinal fluid may not flow due to increased viscosity. A viscosity increase due to formation of organic pus.
- Bacteriological examination is carried out at a sample of cerebrospinal fluid, urine, mucus from the nasopharynx, blood. It should be noted that after the death to identify the cause, when I observed symptoms of infection during life, also performed this study by taking putrid material. Research is carried out by seeding the sample in the culture medium for the infection.
- Serological studies are the detection of specific antibodies in the blood of the patient. Also for testing can be taken urine as the sample.
The modern method is the study of the structure of DNA. It is performed only in specialized centers as it requires expensive specific equipment and complete sterility of the environment. Even the slightest environmental impact on the taken material can lead to distortion of test results. Despite the difficulties that relate to this study, it is done quite often because of the high speed and accuracy, obtaining a complete picture of the occurrence of diseases.
The causative agent of meningitis dies with minor environmental impact. However, if the virus survived and was able to develop in the body that occurs due to the fall of the immune system or at an early age of clinical manifestation can lead to very serious issues. Only with timely treatment and the right treatment it is possible to exclude the possibility of abnormalities and the occurrence of life-threatening. In the above information, it was shown that the development of the disease in children and adults leads to impaired brain activity, cardiovascular system, and so on. Mechanism of transmissiondroplet type determines what is at risk are all the people who are dealing with infected or were in close contact.
When considering the treatment of this viral disease, you should highlight the following points:
- Early diagnosis and proper treatment can save the life of the patient and provides a favorable social and labor forecast.
- In acute manifestation of symptoms is assigned a complex treatment.
- Quite a popular drug that is indicated for meningitis and other manifestations of the considered infection is benzylpenicillin. Introduced this drug every 4 hours intramuscularly. The observance of this rule allows to reduce manifestation of symptoms. Note that this drug has a high efficiency, but is poorly absorbed by the body. That is why also spells out the substances that enhance the penetration of a basic drug through the blood-brain barrier. You can assign other drugs that reduce the manifestation of the problem.
- The duration of the prescribed treatment may be about 7 days. It should be noted that moment, that to reduce the size of the dose and to stop taking certain drugs can only the doctor. Once the virus has taken root in the body, it behaves aggressively, only some substances can kill pathogen and reduce the manifestation of symptoms.
- In terms of the environment when the temperature is raised and the humidity reduced, the patient significantly reduced weight, is assigned a special treatment program. This is because the reduced weight indicates a problem with the immune system.
If we consider the course of the disease in the body, the treatment is assigned based on the relief of all major symptoms. The doctor prescribes treatment, taking into account the combination of all drugs. When collecting history is also taken into account the source of infection.
In conclusion, we should pay attention to the ongoing prevention. Patients who have bright symptoms, isolated from others, as the pathogen is transmitted quite quickly and with casual contact. If there is no possibility to hospitalize a patient, there shall be insulation in the house. Other people who were in contact with the patient during the month before diagnosis, examined for the presence of virus.
If the ill child attended the child care facility, conduct a survey of all children who could be in contact. Also disinfection of the premises, of all things. Children aged 1 to 7 years of normal immunoglobulin is administered. Vaccination can significantly increase the body's resistance to infection. Every year, there has been the development of vaccines that can protect the body from exposure to different strains considered pathogens.