What is a nosocomial infection
Many people do not visit medical institutions due to the fact that they are afraid of Contracting infection. Various preventive measures can eliminate the possibility of spreading bacteria and infections in the treatment room, however, the concept of nosocomial infections is. Infectious diseases obtained in medical institutions – here is the answer to the question, what is NI. In most cases, the symptoms presented by the syndrome of sepsis and septic lesions of the body. Pathogens of this group of infectious diseases can be a lot of different viruses and bacteria. Therefore, in order to exclude infection of patients at medical institutions, adopted a number of measures of disinfection of the premises.
Caused the problems, VBI
Nosocomial infection can cause a number of problems:
- Note that infection after surgery or at the time of treatment for serious illness can lead to death. Based on the statistics, the death rate from nosocomial infection in medical hospitals took the first place.
- Included in the body of the infection at the time of treatment can cause significant complications of treatment, as well as increasing its value. A significant increase in the cost of treatment due to the fact that increasing the length of hospitalization, antibiotics, which can have a high cost.
- Special attention is paid to sterility of the premises in the offices of birthing. After birth, the child has developed immunity to many infections. The present study shows that in 25% of cases, when a baby is born prematurely, the death occurs due razvivchemsa sepsis.
- In the body due to infection can develop diseases that will cause temporary or permanent disability.
The above points define what in the intensive care and surgical Department, intensive care, taking steps aimed at the exclusion of the probability of occurrence of nosocomial infection. In addition, for each type of offices and chambers developed a separate prevention norms.
The history of the emergence of the term "NI»
You should pay attention to the fact that NI — the concept of nosocomial infection of a collective nature. It was proposed in 1979 by the European regional Bureau of who. After some time, this abbreviation began to appear in clinics in different countries.
Every year the problem of the spread of infections in a medical institution is becoming increasingly important. This is due to the fact that the advent of modern treatment methods, use of new equipment and drugs, the effect of which is aimed at artificial suppression of the immune system determines the presentation of the high requirements of sterility of the premises, which is patients in in-patient treatment. As an example, you can call the office of organ transplantation. In order to avoid rejection of a transplanted organ to the patient prescribe drugs and courses that lead to the artificial reduction of the immune system. As a result, the body becomes virtually defenseless to viruses, and that means infection, after entering the room, can spread rather quickly.
Researches have disappointing results. According to the result of infection at medical institutions occurs in 5-12%. In the United States every year more than 2 000 000 cases, of which 25% die because of treatment failure and development of complications. That is why the concerns of many patients at health institutions is justified. Our surveys indicate that the annual loss from NI is 5-10 billion dollars. You should pay attention to the fact that in the event of evidence of infection of the patient who is undergoing treatment at the hospital, due to non-compliance with preventive measures, you can count on monetary compensation.
Source of infection
Sources of nosocomial infections are often associated with patients who have acute pneumocephaly diseases. Also quite often you can find a situation when the infection does not manifest itself over a long period of time. The source of infection can be medical staff who have direct contact with patients, but it is a strong immune system – therefore, the symptoms do not show
ll, but the transfer of the pathogen.
As a rule, the causative agents of nosocomial infections can be transmitted the followingimage:
- Airborne droplets.
- Household method.
- In contact with infected.
In most cases, it is in contact with the patient or contaminated object occurs the transfer of the pathogen. Airborne droplets spread where fewer pathogens, but this method of getting the virus in the body is also considered. In areas where you need to pass the sterility, the hospital installed a high extent: the visit, the transfer of food, clothing forbidden, there are elements of air filtration, it is forbidden to open the Windows more frequently performed sanitary cleaning.
Despite the fact that in this group of infections include agents which are quite common outside of hospital institutions, they can become a cause of atypical course of disease, occurrence of unusual symptoms. Due to the fact that the patient is already undergoing treatment, can develop various complications due to weakened immune system. Hospital quarantine in many departments and wards allows you to exclude the likelihood of complications.
Which leads to the appearance of VBI?
The group of infections develops only in the presence of certain risk factors, which include:
- If there are no identified infections in staff and patients who are undergoing treatment at the hospital.
- Violation of the rules of personal hygiene by staff and patients.
- Overloading hospitals.
- Violation of the rules of disinfection, failure to perform cleaning, using the wrong tools.
- Insufficient equipping staff with tools that can fight infectious diseases.
- Violation of disinfection of instruments, devices and preparations that can be transferred from the Department to the Department.
- The use of outdated equipment, and methods of disinfection.
In some types of premises shall be installed in the supply mechanism with a filter element. Example would be the surgical Department, operating rooms, wards for patients who underwent surgery for organ transplantation.
To exclude the ingress of infection in the clinic is almost impossible. However, prevention measures are intended to reduce the likelihood of transmission and spread of infection in the building and beyond. Disinfection is an effective measure of prevention, which is aimed at reducing the number of pathogens in the room, which can appear due to the infected patient or due to infection of personnel. Organization of disinfection of the case rests on the shoulders of nurses, preventive measures should be carried out every day.
Conventionally, the disinfection must include:
- Mechanical methods aimed at the destruction of pathogens. Example would be the winding, wiping, or shaking, washing and cleaning.
- The physical facility represented by the use of special methods to control pathogens: the flow of hot air with low humidity, water steam or UV exposure. Physical means are often used to disinfect medical instruments, clothing, premises with high demands of sterility.
- Chemicals are often combined with mechanical method of exposure. Often in hospitals used surfactants, alcohols, acids and many other special drugs.
It is important to note that the effectiveness often depends on compliance with the established timetable for their implementation. Some methods of disinfection should be applied every day regardless of the situation in a medical institution, the other should only be done in certain cases, for example, before use of the tools.
Requirements for disinfection
You should pay attention to the requirements to the disinfection in a medical institution:
- The effectiveness of the work performed for disinfection is determined by performing periodic microbiological testing.
- The means used must be absolutely safe for patients and staff.
- Used chemicals should not have a detrimental effect on the material.
- The cost of services of private clinics is associated with its spending. Why choose disinfection methods not only in terms of efficiency, but efficiency.
- Speed is also quite important. Viruses, fungi and bacteria should be killed within a few minutes in order to not have time to get to the patient or staff.
- The substances applied must not be explosive or burn violently.
- Easy to use, production and destruction are also included.
However, even with adherence to the above recommendations of nosocomial viruses can be infected with staff or patients. The definition of this group of infections indicates that they can get into the room in different ways. Therefore, additional measures of prevention you can call the following action:
- Every patient should receive a one-timelinen, bedding and towels. While medical staff must periodically conduct a change of linen and clean the room.
- Nurses also need to obtain clothing. In order to increase the body's resistance to mandatory vaccination is performed. In the period of acute respiratory infections should be used personal protection equipment, usually gauze bandages.
- Should be organized on the proper allocation of work in hospitals.
In conclusion, we note that patients who are not in serious condition, also need to pay special attention to the observance of rules of personal hygiene. To protect yourself from infection by reducing the incidence of communication with other patients.