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Streptococcal infection antibiotic treatment

Streptococcus refers to gram-positive bacteria, cocci that form a chain structure.

Latin name: Streptococcus

Streptokokkovaya infekciya lechenie antibiotikami

Other titles: impetigo, streptococcal infection, superficial pyoderma

What is strep in the urine, in the blood and in the body as a whole – on the skin, in your mouth?

The infection is divided into an alpha-hemolytic, beta - and gamma-hemolytic. This separation is the result of the growth of these bacteria when cultivated in agar blood.

Alpha-hemolytic streptococci

They include pneumococci and oral streptococci.

Streptococcus pneumoniae – pneumococcus

It is usually present in the nasopharynx, the presence of bacteria typical of adults (10%) and children (60%), and face presence of this bacteria is healthy.

Transmission of S. pneumoniae occurs by droplet infection, i.e. by sneezing, coughing. The incubation period from infection to symptoms of infection is about 1-3 days.

Symptoms of streptococcal infection and disease

Strep enters the body through the respiratory tract, which colonized, and enters the bloodstream, spreading to other parts of the body. Therefore, can cause inflammation of the valves, joints, and severe inflammation of the meninges. From the nasopharynx enters the sinus, the region of the middle ear, and from there directly to the brain membranes. Happens as men and children, and women (streptococcal infection in gynecology often causes complications, particularly in pregnancy).

Oral streptococci are part of the natural microflora of the oral cavity, and include: S. sanquis, S. salivarius, S. mutans, S. milleri.

The infection they cause in a time when they are preceded by any other infection. From the mouth the bacteria can then spread further into the body and cause bacteremia, meningitis, pneumonia, endocarditis and abscesses. S. mutans promotes tooth decay.

Pneumonia

The disease is a viral infection that often occurs with the case when the person is weakened. Symptoms include:

  • high temperature,
  • a cough associated with phlegm, mucus and pus,
  • the most common symptom is pain in the chest, worse when breathing in.

Angina

If the attacks strep tonsils, the result is angina. This disease usually can identify themselves with such features as:

  • high temperature,
  • sore throat worse when swallowing,
  • are present on the tonsils white coating,
  • general weakness.

Otitis

Streptococcus is often the causative agent of this infection. Present:

  • ear pain,
  • elevated temperature,
  • hearing impairment,
  • general weakness.

Sinusitis

Streptococcal infection in the nose characterizedaccumulation of pus in the sinuses, which is associated with pain in the sinuses, the cheeks, forehead, with a high temperature. Often this streptococcal infection antibiotics is not sufficient and it is necessary to puncture the cavity in order to bring the pus and get rid of the strep.

Meningitis

This is the most serious form of the infection. Most often found in younger children. Basically, impose on the inflammation of the middle ear or sinuses, where bacteria spread to the mucous membranes. The disease is manifested by symptoms such as:

  • high temperature,
  • weakness,
  • impairment of consciousness,
  • severe headache,
  • meningeal symptoms (inability to put chin to chest, at the time, as bends in the side is not difficult).

The meningitis of this type causes up to 20% mortality or life-long complications such as deafness. Should antibiotic treatment of streptococcal infection of this type also involves supportive care, which belongs to the hands of the doctor!

Diagnosis of streptococcal infection

Before you wonder how to cure the strep (or, how to cure the disease that caused the bacteria), it is necessary to test for its presence, i.e. to establish the diagnosis.

Streptokokkovaya infekciya lechenie antibiotikami

To diagnose infection by using standard blood tests. Lumbar puncture and sampling of cerebrospinal fluid also plays an important role in how to identify skin (manifesting on the skin), chronic or other forms of the disease.

The disease requires hospitalization. When streptococcal infection is assigned to intensive treatment with antibiotics (antibiotics are injected in high doses into the vein).

Make the decision about how to treat Streptococcus than to cure strep how to cure a streptococcal infection of the skin (disease, symptoms of which appear on the skin) or diseases affecting the mouth, nose or ears should solely specialist. Therefore, access to a doctor is a necessity! In no case should not self-medicate!

Preventive measures

As prevention and protection against Streptococcus vaccine consisting of 23 antigens.

Beta-hemolytic streptococci

Streptococcus pyogenes – streptococci of group A

Pyogenic Streptococcus is excreted by many virulent factors. The most famous is the Streptolysin O that is responsible for the destruction of cells, is toxic to the heart, produces antibodies against it, is known as ASLO, which are then used in the diagnosis of this kind of streptococci.

The infection is transmitted by airborne droplets and by contact with contaminated food.

The bacterium causes, mainly diseases of the upper respiratory tract.

Typical is the above streptococcal sore throat, infection is accompanied by inflammation of the tonsils, sore throat, runny nose, swelling of the submandibular gland, fatigue, etc.

Scarlet fever caused by Streptococcus, develops due to contact with S. pyogenes. This disease is associated with a small rash. The rash is a result of the exposure to the toxin released by the bacterium that binds to the walls of the capillaries in the skin and mucous membranes.

Skin disease

Impetigo

First of all, I should mention impetigo – a highly contagious infectious skin disease attributed to Streptococcus. It is manifested in two forms: bullous and bullous not.

Streptokokkovaya infekciya lechenie antibiotikami

Bullous impetigo is characterized by the occurrence of large blisters, filled with fluid. The bubbles burst quickly.

For non bullous impetigo typical small blisters that burst and form crust. They quickly spread and, therefore, the necessity to start without delay antibiotic treatment.

Erysipelas

Erysipelas is a type of streptococcal inflammation of the skin, which is dominated by red spots, the disease has the character of cellulitis, i.e. unlimited inflammation with systemic symptoms.

Disease deep tissue

Cellulite

Do not confuse this disease with "orange peel" on the thighs. We are talking about inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue caused by Streptococcus. The affected area becomes hot, red and swollen. Common symptoms are represented by fever and fatigue. The disease can lead to necrotic fasciitis, a life-threatening infection of the muscle bundles. At this illness need is surgical intervention.

When infections are present not only direct effects, can also take place a so-called sterile consequences, developing when the body is free from streptococci. This is the reaction of the immune system, which developed antibodies against the Streptococcus and its toxins. They are combined with pathogenic antigens but also with antigens of its own tissues. Created complex antigen – antibody, which is stored in the tissues, which damage. Manifestations of this are:

Rheumatic fever – post-streptococcal-relateda violation of the joints, the heart, when often there are defects in the valves, but also brain damage, loss of motor skills. These symptoms appear about 1-3 weeks after recovery from infection.

Glomerulonephritis – in this case, it is also about the defeat of immune complexes that are deposited in the renal tissue in the glomerular basement membrane and activate the immune system, destroying the membrane. Among the manifestations of this process is the pain in the shoulders, protein and blood in the urine. There may also be a violation of blood pressure.

Treatment

In defense against Streptococcus antibiotics in accordance with sensitivity of the bacteria. Most of them represented by the Penicillins, Cephalosporins and Macrolides.

Streptococcus agalactiae – streptococci of group

Often colonize the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract, vagina, skin and tonsils. Because of the prevalence of this bacterium in the vagina there is a risk of neonatal infection (meningitis, sepsis, pneumonia) when passing through the birth canal. It is therefore necessary to cure the mother if she is infected with a Streptococcus. Also, the bacterium causes urinary tract infections.

Treatment of streptococcal infections with antibiotics to treat streptococcal infection help Penicillins, Macrolides.

Treatment of streptococcal infections in obstetrics (particularly during pregnancy) requires careful control of a doctor!

Impetigo and streptococci

Description of impetigo

Impetigo is a contagious disease whose name comes from the Latin "impetere", which means "attack", "attack". Mostly affects infants and children of preschool and school-age children, it is possible the emergence of adults, typically the mothers of infected children because the disease is very contagious.

The primary source are bacteria of the genus Staphylococcus (aureus, often even dangerous methicillin-resistant SA – MRSA) and Streptococcus pyogenes. As a rule, the skin forms a strong barrier against pathogenic and other bacteria on its surface, but the damage to the skin in a certain way the barrier is broken and the bacteria is facilitated. The possibility of damage different, they can be represented by the bites of animals, insects and people, like any other skin trauma, cuts, or scratches. Through the wound the bacteria enter in the deeper structures of the skin where they grow and proliferate, causing inflammation and soon, all the typical symptoms, such as redness, pain, itching and swelling.

In some cases, impetigo can occur on healthy, intact skin.

Prevention of impetigo

It is important to respect the basic hygiene habits in groups, for example, in the case of young children in kindergartens. Impetigo is spread very quickly here, and therefore, children need increased vigilance. It is important not to share towels or clothing, and other hygienic tools such as razor blades, etc. with family or friends. In an environment where there is impetigo, it is good to pay attention to all the scratches and minor injuries promptly to decontaminate and use antibacterial soap.

If a child or an adult is infected, it is necessary after each bath or shower use a clean towel after each contact with the source of the disease it is good to wash your hands to prevent further spread of infection.

Signs – how to define and identify a streptococcal infection and impetigo? Contagious impetigo

Streptokokkovaya infekciya lechenie antibiotikami

The so-called impetigo contagiosa (contagious impetigo) is the most common form. Initially manifests itself as reddish blister on the face, often on the nose or mouth. The blister soon breaks, it implies the fluid or pus, after his disappearance remains a red spot that usually heals without scarring. Lesions may itch, but mainly not get sick. This kind usually accompanied by other manifestations, such as fever, are often present such reactions as swelling of the corresponding lymph nodes.

In more severe cases, blisters can be painful and changes in deep ulcers, which may even leave a scar after healing.

Bullous impetigo

Another form of impetigo is called bullous usually affects very young children, mostly under two years. In the course of the disease arise painless, fluid-filled blisters on the trunk, arms and legs, their localization, therefore, differs from classical contagious impetigo. The skin around the blisters is red and itchy. The bubbles are larger and stronger than other types of impetigo.

Ecthyma

Ecthyma is the most serious form of impetigo. She gets into deep layers of skin into the dermis. The symptoms presented are very painful, fluid-filled or pus blisters, usually occur deep ulcers on the feet and legs. After rupture of the blister formed is very hard and durable, gray-yellow crust, often after healing the scars remain. A typical manifestation is a swelling of the corresponding lymph nodes.

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