Moderate cervical dysplasia — Symptoms and treatment of dysplasia
The tissue structure of the human uterus is very heterogeneous. This is due to the variation of forming the structure of uterine epithelial cells. This feature is the root cause of disease and changes in the structure and tissue of the uterus.
Dysplasia of the columnar epithelium that is exactly what manifested. Such violations constitute a separate disease, with its symptoms, testing methods, schemes of medical treatment.
Common types of changes
Cervical erosion is a surface modification of the uterine lining, in the form of displacement of part of the columnar epithelium to the vaginal area.
The structure of the cells is not changed. As a result, not typical for cells of the uterine epithelium of the vaginal environment is having its negative impact, forming erosive lesions.
Vaginal microflora of micro injuries during sexual intercourse leading to injury of the mucosa. Are small ulcers, the damaged epithelial layer visualized under medical inspection mirrors, on reception at the gynecologist.
Cervical cancer is the mutation of cells, acquiring the possibility of quick and mass reproduction. Atypical cells form in the growth of the extensive sprawl, which is considered a hotbed of Oncology. They go beyond the tissue where formed.
Dysplasia is a breach in the structural layers of the epithelium of the mucosa of the cervix, where the originate and multiply cells extrinsic to the body shape. But, despite this, in contrast to cancer, these cells do not extend beyond the tissue where it originated.
Almost all types of these diseases are a consequence of each other. For example, erosion has the ability to be reborn in dysplasia, and it in Oncology. They are, in some cases, the same diagnostic tools, similar methods of treatment and prevention. Equally negative impacts on health and reproductive health of women in General.
In our days, scientists and doctors use a different term, specifying what is cervical dysplasia — cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN, or CIN).
Cervical dysplasia is a disease, while a flow which, on the affected cavity the patient's body cells are formed with the changes.
The difference between these cells in their structure, they take more thicker form, grow, reject epithelium. Under the changes implied a different structure of cells, their exclusion from epithelium during maturation. The disease is considered a predisposition to the acquisition of further cancer-cancer of the uterus.
You need to consider that in 90 percent of cases out of a hundred, the disease is not treated, as cervical dysplasia is converted to cancer.
Agents and conditions that cause illness
As with any other disease of the female organs, cervical dysplasia is the prerequisite for the emergence of the female body.
Klassificeret several negative factors that provoke the disease:
- exogenous (acquired): infection viral infectious disease such as human papilloma, herpes virus, various types of urogenital infections and sexually transmitted diseases, such as Ureaplasma, chlamydia, mycoplasmosis, Trichomonas, gonococci, frequent childbirth, intentional abortion, artificial birth.Long-term effects of infection on the female body, it provokes the weakening, which is a favorable cause for the disease,
- endogenous (conditions of the internal environment): a long-term hormonal (pills, immune and genetic diseases), poor immunity, spike weight and thyroid disease that is also characterized by a change in the hormonal composition,
- confounding factors when the state of the body, the immune system, other diseases, etc. combined to cause the disease.
But, first and foremost among these factors is still the human papilloma virus (HPV). Very often the patient doesn't even know is infected with the infection.
Years the virus affects the body from the inside, without explicitly-defined symptoms. Sometimes from the moment of infection of HPV to the detection of dysplasia may take more than 8 years.title="Moderate dysplasia of the cervix — Symptoms and treatment of dysplasia" />
Get infected woman can under various conditions. During unprotected intercourse, the use of someone else's hygiene items (towel, washcloth, underwear, etc.), in the sauna or the pool, with tactile contacts, etc.
Be infected with a virus can virtually any woman, but mostly those who have frequent unprotected sexual encounters with casual partners. Cause of dysplasia may be any of the types of HPV, for example warts that occur on the genitals or warts.
Therefore, it is recommended with extreme caution applies to this question. To observe elementary rules of hygiene.
According to the degree of activity and oncogenetic HPV are divided into subtypes:
- Do not carry a risk of cancer or carrying a low level of risk. Most often this relates to warts and sexually transmitted pointed condyloma. They take no more than 10 %, as a cause of cancer of the cervix.
- Bearing low level of risk. Result in cervical cancer in 10-20% of cases out of a hundred.
- High risk level. Almost always they are the root cause of cancer. Indicative of dysplasia has developed into cancer.
The main manifestations of the disease — moderate cervical dysplasia
In the early stages of the disease to define it is difficult. She has virtually no obvious symptoms. Often, the disease begins to show itself when he accepted a more complex form.
Leaking for a long time, at the stage of running you may receive the following:
Sharp and pulling pain feeling in the abdomen, discomfort, painful periods. Not frequent, moderate vaginal discharge mixed with blood. Often in the course of sexual intercourse, or great physical exertion. Pain during sexual intercourse, use of hygiene products (tampons).
For the early detection of these signs you should regularly visit the gynecologist and to pass the examination. By visual inspection, with the help of mirrors, the doctor will determine whether changes in the integrity of the epithelium.
Often, detection of erosive lesions, the gynecologist prescribes analysis for HPV. Often these illnesses occur simultaneously in the body and have the same root cause.
Indicate the presence of dysplasia can:
Selection of white or transparent color, without pronounced smell in large quantities. The presence of lymph, which is released during or after intercourse.
The disease has several stages of development in a growing scale. Different stages of symptoms, diagnosis and treatment.
As lesions of the epithelium and spread displacing cells include the following types:
- 1 degree (mild), minimal mucosal epithelium. Localized in the upper layers of the epithelium.
- 2 degree (moderate) can hit up to half of the epithelium, penetrate deeper the top layer.
- Grade 3 (severe) affects almost all layers of the epithelium, long-term course of the disease.
To determine the stage of dysplasia, a series of clinical and laboratory research. The doctor, as a biomaterial reports on laboratory studies of cells, based on which we carried out histological examination, the results become a clear picture of the degree of infestation.
Moderate dysplasia of the uterus often, after the elimination of the root causes of its occurrence, can be cured. In half of the cases, after medical treatment for HPV, the further spread of the dysplasia of the layers of the epithelium ceases, the uterus gradually regains its integrity within a few years.
In place of the affected areas of scarring, atypical cells stop multiplying. But if you start the disease, it flows into a complicated third degree, and subsequently to cancer. Period of rebirth of dysplasia in the third degree and the development of cervical cancer may take about a year. What he says about the accelerated course of the disease.
For timely diagnosis of moderate dysplasia, female sexual intercourse or at the age of 30 years, for security purposes need to undergo a gynecological examination once a year. In addition to routine inspection, it is recommended that Cytology — laboratory study.
Major health methods of disease detection are:
- gynecological examination by a doctor external and internal genital organs of the patient mirrors the implementationsamples'.
- sampling and further laboratory examination of the smear (Cytology) colposcopy. The probability of the result precision of about 60 %.
- taking a piece of the epithelium of the uterus for biopsy. The most accurate study. Allowing both to detect and cancer cells.
During the examination, the doctor can visually determine displaziya areas, they differ in appearance from healthy tissue. Have a lighter colored fabric. Also, when conducting pilot studies by Schiller (surface treatment of the cervix with Lugol solution), it will be seen that the affected areas will not change to their full color. They have a more whitish hue.
The conduct of Cytology gives the most accurate result, especially when a large extent of the lesion, that is, stages 2 and 3.
Colposcopy is an examination using a special tool. During which more details can be seen the change in mucosal epithelium and the whole cavity of the uterus. That gives a clearer understanding of which areas affected by dysplasia.
The doctor is able to make more accurate conclusions than when viewed using mirrors. But the most accurate method, which along with the study on the degree of dysplasia can determine the presence of cancer cells is the study of the epithelial tissue within the biopsy. This laboratory study gives hundred percent results match the real situation.
Method of treatment
Before you can assign the rate of moderate dysplasia of the uterus, the doctor conducting a study on the presence of factors that caused the emergence of the disease.
Such as hormonal disorders, viral infectious and sexually transmitted diseases, HPV, inflammation. The patient is prescribed a complex of drugs and other treatments, follow-up study to confirm a positive treatment outcome.
Complex therapy allows to stop the growth displacing cells, forming scars on the surface of affected epithelium. But if the treatment fails, the next step is surgery to correct the problem.
When surgical intervention for the treatment of moderate dysplasia use of operating an electric knife. With its help the surgeon performs the section of the patient's epithelium. Disadvantage of this method is long-term rehabilitation. Recommended recovery within 3-4 months.
Additionally, you may notice the consequences, such as severe scarring in the places section, a small bleeding and pain. During gestation the fetus can also be negative consequences and issues.
Currently, surgery for the treatment of such diseases, use a laser, which also affect the diseased cells. This method is considered more gentle than electric knife, leaves less scars and recovery is within a couple of months. The patient feels better, has almost no effects during pregnancy after this procedure.
Used in the fight against dysplasia of the uterus and a method such as cryotherapy. Damaged disease cells of the mucosa are treated with liquid nitrogen (frozen). It is very similar to another procedure, where the epithelium is treated with medical chemical solution. In the first and in the second case, sick cells die and exfoliate from the epithelium.
The effect of radio waves: Fairly modern method, using the apparatus, in the area of the affected epithelium sent waves that destroy the cells. Has few negative effects, leaves no scar, rapidly restoring the body.
Excision (conization): a commonly used method, a classical surgery. With a scalpel remove the damaged layers of the epithelium. Considered the most traumatic method is not recommended for young women of childbearing age, is characterized by during the rehabilitation period bleeding, pain etc.
A method has not been applied, the period of rehabilitation of the patient provides for a special regime.
- temporary cessation of sexual contacts,
- exception of physical activity,
- abstinence from bathing, direct sunlight and visits to Solarium, baths,
- medical supervision.
Timely diagnostics, an effective treatment, gives very good results at the end.
Dysplasia of the cervix during pregnancy
If diagnosed with cervical dysplasia at the time of family planning, to avoid problems in the future, doctors prescribe the patient a course of treatment. After the end of treatment and repeated studies, the woman is recommended to get pregnant.
But there are cases when the disease was diagnosed when carrying a child. Then the doctors don't see the negative influences of illness on the life of the fetus. Dysplasia of squamous epithelium in no way can affect the placenta and fetal development. The process of development of the fetus also contributes to the strengthening of the disease.
Often, when medical examinations are due tohormonal dysfunction in women because of the pregnancy, the surface of the cervix exposed to the disease can be mistakenly diagnosed as affected with dysplasia.
For these purposes, a pregnant diagnosis is performed on the detection of intrauterine infection, human papilloma virus, etc. In the case when before pregnancy, the patient was examined, carried out more detailed laboratory investigations on the possibility of dysplasia.
With negative tests, pregnant are advised to pay attention to this issue, with postpartum visits.
If still, after colposcopy, suspicions were confirmed, the patient is prescribed, the inspection after delivery, for examination and treatment course.
In cases where doubt exists between the diagnosis of moderate and end-stage dysplasias, it is recommended to conduct a biopsy. After which, the patient is under constant surveillance.
Upon detection of a severe form of cervical dysplasia, the resolution of the issue is left to the moment of delivery, after which, during the first three months of starting treatment.
When detected during clinical studies of cancer cells, the patient goes to the oncologist. Subsequently, all decisions are taken by the physician under the supervision of the pregnant and oncologist together.