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How does skin cancer symptoms

Kak proyavlyaetsya rak kozhi simptomy

What are the first signs of skin cancer? What are the skin cancer types? When to go to the doctor? How to protect yourself from cancer? The answers to these questions are provided for your attention in the next article.

What is skin cancer?

Malignant tumors (cancer) – cancer of the skin, skin cancer scalp, skin cancer of the nose – are the most common types of cancer, but have only a small proportion of deaths from cancer. This is because they grow slowly and usually respond well to treatment.

The two most common types of skin cancer is presented:

  • basal cell cancer,
  • squamous cancer.

Basal cell tumor (basal cell carcinoma) is rarely fatal, but if left untreated, can lead to deformity. Squamous cell carcinoma is dangerous, but in most cases can be completely cured.

Symptoms

  1. Basal cell carcinoma: painless smooth lump, which grows slowly, usually occurring on the face, ears and neck.
  2. Squamous cell carcinoma: painless lesion or red spot that can have a crust or scales on the surface. Most commonly affects the face, ears, neck, hands.
  3. Melanoma: may occur anywhere on the body. Is a painless dark birthmark irregular shape and border, or painful, accepting the pain undergoes relief.
Kak proyavlyaetsya rak kozhi simptomy

Tumors may manifest itself as growths on the skin of different shapes and sizes. Squamous cell carcinoma initially looks like a reddened area of the skin from which grows a knot, like a wart, a neoplasm is slowly increasing, gaining a star shape. The tumor is growing, creating local unsightly defects.

Squamous cell carcinoma resembles shiny drops of wax on the skin, which gradually increase and form on the surface of scales, which after removal leave small open sores. Pustules slowly grows and destroys the surrounding skin. Melanoma looks like a normal mole.

Melanoma is a cancer which is manifested as mucous membranes and the retina of the eye. The disease can occur due to violation of the integrity of malignant pigment spots or moles. Diagnosis is performed mainly by a dermatologist based on clinical examination. During the survey examines the nature, color, size, and location of skin growths. To confirm the diagnosis of skin cancer and its type biopsy of the tumor and histological examination samples of skin.

Types of skin cancer

Most cancers of the skin are not fatal, with the exception of malignant melanoma. Malignant melanoma causes more than 75% of deaths from skin cancer. Its cells spread quickly and metastasize throughout the body. Cells usually settle in the lungs or the brain, and form distant metastases.

Types of skin cancer include:

  1. Melanoma – the most dangerous type of skin cancer, which is fatal. Skin cancer symptoms of this type include moles with irregular or asymmetric edge.
  2. Squamous cell carcinoma – this skin cancer signs is associated with thick red scaly nodules that bleed or look "sick" long time to heal.
  3. Basal cell carcinoma – the most common and most treatable skin cancer. This skin cancer symptoms is initially not strongly expressed. Develops very slowly, the lesions can take a variety of forms, can be flat, raised, scaly, flesh-colored, brown, white or wax form.
  4. Kaposi's sarcoma – cancer caused by human herpesvirus VGC-8, occurs mainly in people with a weakened immune system. The tumor may appear on the skin, in the mouth and on other mucous membranes, signs of the impact of this lesion, a characteristic red or purple spots coveringsurrounding skin. After having assemblies consisting of an irregular, dense network of blood vessels and surrounding tissue. A tumor, usually harmless, painless, only in the case of the visceral form is present, the risk of fatal bleeding.
  5. Cancer of the Merkel – occurs most often on the head, neck, hands, feet, also can develop on other parts of the body. It is a malignant tumor of neuroendocrine nature, emanating from the Merkel cell. Looks like a painless node in reddish color varying consistency.

    Kak proyavlyaetsya rak kozhi simptomy

Melanoma – the most harmful of skin tumor

This deadly type of cancer grows faster than other forms of skin cancer. Can spread rapidly to other parts of the body through the blood or lymphatic circulation. The risk of life-threatening melanoma in 1935 in America was 1:1500, at that time, as today, the ratio is close to 1:75.

To increase this expansion of melanoma? One possibility is that since the beginning of this century reduced the number of activities that people do outdoors. Due to the constant exposure of sunlight the skin of people accustomed to UV light and was less prone to sunburn. Currently, people outdoors spend relatively little time. When they succumb to sunlight, their skin is usually burned, which increases the risk of developing cancer. Another theory says that the solar radiation that penetrates to earth, currently, is much more devastating due to the depletion of the ozone layer in the atmosphere.

Melanoma usually originates from the pigment cells. Increased risk are large moles or newly created, large unusual signs, called dysplastic nevi. Early surgical removal of melanoma has a good prognosis.

How to treat skin cancer?

Laser removal

Many small tumors of the skin are removed with a laser that uses an intense beam of light to remove unwanted tissue.

Treatment depends on the size, type, depth and location of the tumor. In most people there is a need to begin the operation – usually less – for the removal of the tumor.

Surgery

There are several types of operations. In addition to traditional surgery with a scalpel is used cryosurgery (destruction of diseased tissue by freezing), laser surgery (tissue destruction with laser light) and electrocoagulation (destruction of tissue by heat). Some people with melanoma may sometimes be necessary to remove lymph nodes near the cancer, and large areas of the skin. Sometimes after removal of carcinoma should be plastic surgery.

Irradiation

The tumor cells are destroyed in the processing of ionizing radiation. It is carried out in cases where surgery is not possible.

Chemotherapy

Advanced stage melanoma is difficult to treat. Roughly used combination of chemotherapy drugs, interleukin-2, antibodies against specific cells and other medications.

Biological therapy

It aims at strengthening the natural protective forces of the body to fight against cancer. Used substance interferon, stimulating the immune system and the tumor necrosis factor obtained from a type of cell that can kill tumor cells.

Did you know that... Almost half the people who have reached 65 years of age, has at least one type of skin cancer. If you notice any new formation, skin changes or pain that does not tend to alleviate for more than 2 weeks, contact your doctor.

Prevention

Medical prevention:

  1. Monitoring the condition of the skin. If a family history of melanoma is present, and you have moles, or you as a youth were often burned by the sun, pass a medical examination annually.
  2. Food. Antioxidants such as vitamin C and E, beta-carotene and selenium may reduce the risk of developing carcinoma. The recommended daily dose is 1000 mg of vitamin C, 100-400 mg of vitamin E, 25-50 mg of beta-carotene.

Currently, in relation to preventing cancer attention mainly focused on vitamin A and beta-carotene. Swiss and American studies have shown that beta-carotene is a natural substance that can reduce the risk of cancer and also block the further expansion of already developed tumors, or even prevent its creation.

Lifestyle:

  1. Limiting sun exposure. Avoid sunlight between 10:00 and 15:00, when they are the most aggressive.

    Kak proyavlyaetsya rak kozhi simptomy

  2. Use a sunscreen. Every time you stay outdoors, use a sunscreen with a factor of at least 15 (SPF-15), which blocks 93% of UV rays. Make sure that the product contains avobenzone (or Parsol 1789), which provides protection against 2 types of solar radiation – UVA and UVB. Apply the cream every 2 hours on the face, the head (men in the case of a bald head) and ears – the most commonplace of skin cancer.

Cover up!

A recent poll showed that despite continuous education and information, 14 people out of 100 are not protected from the sun, cosmetics containing a UV filter, uses 60% of the respondents. 34% of respondents are protected from the sun with clothes, 27% are struggling to stay mainly in the shade. During his stay in direct sunlight, cosmetics with SPF uses only 48% of people!

  1. Cover. Wear clothing of tightly woven fabric, which covers a large part of the skin on the body. Also provide excellent protection hat with a wide brim. Be especially careful if you are under the sun on the snow, near a body of water or ice, reflections intensify the sun exposure.
  2. Check your skin. Every month come view aimed at finding tumors of the skin or changes in moles and freckles. If you notice any suspicious changes, immediately consult your doctor.
  3. A warning to parents. Protect children from excessive sun exposure. Any, even the most minor sunburns in childhood greatly increases the risk of skin cancer, including melanoma, later in life.

Suspicious signs

These characteristics describe suspicious moles:

  1. Asymmetry: a mole has an irregular shape, is not symmetrical.
  2. Border: uneven, baked or blurred edges or other spots in this area.
  3. Color: some parts may be darker than others, a mole painted in more than one shade.
  4. Diameter: the mole is, on average, more than 0.5 cm, or is growing significantly.
  5. Bleeding: bleeding from a mole or freckle is a sign of an advanced stage of the disease.

Do not look for only dark spots

The skin is gonna be a dark cancer – melanoma. There is also the so-called white cancer, i.e., the above-described basal cell and squamous cell carcinoma. They are also destructive, but mostly not metastasize, and may be more amenable to treatment. However, they cannot be left on the skin for a long time, because they can grow in deeper parts of the skin, cartilage, bone, etc.

According to statistics, melanoma, most men suffer at the age of 54 years, carcinoma occurs most often on the back. This is often the body most exposed to the sun, when men work outside without a shirt.