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Leiomyoma of the uterus — Symptoms, causes and treatment of uterine leiomyoma

The uniqueness of the structure of the female body, urogenital system and reproductive function, the relationship of all the body's hormonal system is amazing.

Lejomioma matki — Simptomy, prichiny i lechenie lejomiomy matki

There are a number of diseases that are due to the physiological features peculiar only to the female sex. One such disease is uterine leiomyoma.

Leiomyoma of the uterus, what is it?

It is a benign neoplasm in the uterus. The so-called the kind of muscle tumors. This disease affects more than half of the female population, which is more than 35 years. Is often the consequence of other gynecological diseases that triggered its emergence.

In the early stages of development, it does not bring harm to the female body. Little manifests itself, may coexist with pregnancy, does not violate the reproductive function, does not contribute to exacerbation of existing diseases. Particularly active growth of such tumors provoke estrogens.

Lejomioma matki — Simptomy, prichiny i lechenie lejomiomy matki

For example, the decrease in the index of estrogens in the body during hormonal changes (pregnancy, menopause, course hormonal medications), can positively influence the disease by stopping the growth of tumors.

This type of myoma nodular tumor, oval-round form in the uterine cavity. Sizes can be different, small — 3-4 mm 7-10 mm average large size of a pigeon egg to the Apple.

Depending on their location in the uterus, this type of fibroids have the following classification:

  • submucous leiomyoma of uterus (located in the tissues of the endometrium),
  • subserous leiomyoma of uterus (with progressive growth, located under the peritoneum outside the pelvis),
  • another view — intramural leiomyoma of the uterine cavity,
  • intramuscular leimyomas of the uterus,
  • with tsentripetalnoe trend growth muscular junction (junction of uterine leiomyoma).
Lejomioma matki — Simptomy, prichiny i lechenie lejomiomy matki

All types of leiomyomas can be treated. The difference lies in the method of exposure. Small size and slow growth, leiomyoma treated in outpatients medicines. If the size exceeds the normal range, it is subject to deletion.

The reasons, provoking the formation of uterine leiomyoma

Leiomyoma in rare cases in women under 30 years. Mostly women from 30 to 50 years.

Provoke, are the main prerequisites to the formation of various types of leiomyoma, the following factors: improper operation of the appendages of the ovaries. This is the main body responsible for the hormones in the female body.

In the case of ovarian dysfunction, namely increased production of hormone estrogen and creates a favorable environment for the formation of a tumor.

Numerous abortion (termination of pregnancy), childbirth is exhausting the body, can also cause fibroids.

Lejomioma matki — Simptomy, prichiny i lechenie lejomiomy matki

Prolonged use of contraceptive drugs with a high content of hormones. The treatment of other diseases hormonal drugs. Sharp changes in weight. Or greater odds of overweight.

In this case, in a woman's body there is a growth of estrogen-the root causes of leiomyoma.

  1. Surgical intervention in the uterus. Micro trauma can cause the formation of knots in these places.
  2. Diabetes. In acute phases of the disease, changes in hormonal background.
  3. Inflammatory processes in female genitals.
  4. Liver disease, heart and blood vessels.
  5. Later puberty.
  6. Missed abortion and ectopic conception.
  7. Signs of leiomyoma virgin.

In connection with the feature of this tumor (benign tumor from smooth muscle), it is localized on the surface or in the submucosa of the uterine cavity. In rare cases, is formed in the cavity of the bowel or digestive tract.

This disease has almost no pronounced symptoms. To detect its presence is often only possible with physical examination.

Lejomioma matki — Simptomy, prichiny i lechenie lejomiomy matki

But still, sometimes it makes itself known, giving the following signals:

  • the menstrual cycle, heavy and painful periods, the increase cycle,
  • frequent urge tourinate, and sometimes incontinence, pain in lower abdomen or uterus outside,
  • weight change in a big way, often without abusing food,
  • discomfort during sexual intercourse, discharge of blood before or after the act,
  • reproductive disorders, the long absence of conception, a feeling of stiffness of the pelvic organs.

If the size of the leiomyoma is large, it can put pressure on the bladder, the adrenal glands can trigger the formation of kidney, bladder inflammation, cystitis.

Diagnosis of leiomyoma

Fibroids are diagnosed by visual inspection by a doctor. Using mirrors, the gynecologist examines the woman. Submucosal changes , after the formation of nodular tumors, well-investigated visually. Large nodes grope when the doctor performs external palpation. Inside fibroids can also be seen in connection with your structure, distinctive color fabrics, etc.

Further, for a clearer picture, conduct ultrasound diagnosis. This type of research allows to specify the size of the leiomyomas, with regular monitoring to determine growth trend, the exact location. It is necessary for a decision on further treatment. In some cases, a biopsy if it is suspected, to detect cancer. However, this rarely happens.

Lejomioma matki — Simptomy, prichiny i lechenie lejomiomy matki

Other types of surveillance colposcopy (examination using a colposcope),magnetic resonance tomografy, the taking of biological material for histological examination. In the case of complicated situations, your doctor may order a laparoscopy. Laparoscopy is used in the treatment of leiomyomas in two cases. For examination and removal of the tumor, by reducing tissue. The laparoscope is introduced into the uterine cavity through the hole, then removed the fibroids.

The development of tumors during pregnancy

The level of growth and the location of leiomyomas allows to determine the stage of development. In addition, the location of memomy affects the manifestation of symptoms and pain. For example, located in the center of the uterine cavity, myoma which grows simultaneously with the fetus during pregnancy, may cause abortion.

Due to the growth of the tumor is the rejection of the fetus. Or fibroids can cause the fading of the fetus, which also negatively, as the first case.

Developing in the uterus is leiomyoma, while the later is detected during pregnancy, has already degenerated into a cancer, can metastasize. This will affect a state of pregnancy, childbearing and childbirth.

Lejomioma matki — Simptomy, prichiny i lechenie lejomiomy matki

If pregnancy is planned in advance, the doctors examined the patient, the presence of leiomyomas, conducted conservative treatment, after which only permitted the conception. This is another risk factor, talking about the need for regular examinations.

Depending on the size, the doctor prescribes treatment leiomyo of the uterus. It can be medically or through surgical intervention. When making decisions for the doctor and the patient plays an important role whether in the future the woman to become pregnant. Because the effect on the uterus can carry consequences as a violation of the child born of a function. Although in most cases, the integrity of the uterine cavity is not disturbed.

Treatment of uterine leiomyoma involves two types of surgical removal of a benign tumour.

Surgical treatment of leiomyomas

Hysterectomy-during this operation, from the cavity where the leiomyoma, it only removes the tumor itself. Such a procedure is less traumatic, there is no need for operation by incision of the peritoneum. Does not affect the nearby organs. This is one of the most traumatic types of transactions.

Lejomioma matki — Simptomy, prichiny i lechenie lejomiomy matki

Myomectomy-there is a need for removal of the formed knot of muscle and tissues affected in the uterus. A complex operation, during which a woman loses a lot of blood, injured the uterus, and then a long time recovering. After may be accompanied by inflammatory processes and complicated period of rehabilitation. Requires special sparing mode of life in the first days after surgery. Another disadvantage is the occurrence of adhesions. This is not good for those who are planning a pregnancy.

For removal of the leiomyoma is the most common abdominal surgery through the peritoneum. As mentioned above, removed the tumor and damaged tissue. But at the discretion of the surgeon, if there is such a need, you can remove and completely the uterus. In this regard, myomectomy is rarely recommended for women of childbearing age, or those who for certain reasons does not wish the uterus removed.

During a hysteroscopy, which is considered a more gentle method, in the walls of the hospital, under General anesthesia or local anesthesia, leiomyoma removed by using a resectoscope. Recommendations for this method of removal is the formation of submucous leiomyomas.

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Laparoscopic myomectomy is also considered to be less traumatic, as the tumor is removed without any abdominal incisions abdominal cavity. Has short recovery times and minimal adverse effects. But unfortunately, applicable only laparoscopy to remove fibroids in the initial stages, small size. After this kind of operations, if the woman's uterus has not been removed, doctors recommend to give birth with cesarean section.

Despite the fact that the tumor is benign, it is crucial to diagnose and to cure. Otherwise, can be inflicted significant damage to the health. Leaking together with endometriosis, leiomyoma may cause uterine bleeding can lead to iron loss, changes in blood counts.

The transformation of leiomyoma into a cancerous tumor

If you have aggravated heredity, predisposition to cancer, other negative factors influencing the development of the disease, there is a probability of conversion of a tumor in cancer, for example cervical cancer. Therefore, after the detection of the tumor, the doctors strictly recommend to consult a doctor every 3 months. To monitor the growth of tumors, to adhere to the treatment plan.

In the early stages of tumor growth can suspend medication. A course of medication aimed at lowering estrogen in the blood of the patient. In addition, hormonal medication (oral contraceptives), to restore balance.

Lejomioma matki — Simptomy, prichiny i lechenie lejomiomy matki
Staging of uterine fibroids is necessary in order to select the most appropriate set of treatment measures

Perhaps the use of medical procedures within the hospital, is baths, irrigation, injection and intravenous drip infusion.

The operation to remove the fibroids will not be a necessity. But if doctors have any doubts, then for determining the quality of tumor cells, do ATSEP tissue and sent for a biopsy. It's the most reliable method of detection of cancer cells. In such circumstances, may develop fibrolipoma of uterine cancer.

To treat leiomyoma will have throughout its existence. As fibroids do not have progressive growth, does not cause discomfort to the body, does not require removal.

If there are no additional factors causing the growth of the leiomyoma, it can grow to 1mm in a few years. That is why it is important to constantly observe the size and growth trend of the tumor. It can be years to have the same size, but grow in the short term. It can be triggered by stress, deteriorating health, menopause, lowered immunity, genetic diseases.

Leiomyoma located in the cavity close to the neck of the uterus, may prevent fertilization, or to provoke inflammation.

Lejomioma matki — Simptomy, prichiny i lechenie lejomiomy matki

We must not forget that the female sexual system, is a barometer of the entire body. Given that the uterus performs a vital role, responsible for fertility, hormonal balance, her health should be paid special attention.

Often, women who have given birth, start health and rarely visit a gynecologist. It can bring negative fruits in the future. You can not see the stages of growth of fibroids and found already transformed into the fibroid, which is not desirable.

Even if the woman is not planning more children have to remember that the work of the pelvic organs is the basis of women's health.