Sexually transmitted diseases
- One The definition of an STD
- Two Classification of STDs
- Three Widespread disease
- Four Clamidiosis
- Five HIV infection
- Six Trichomoniasis
- Seven Herpes virus
- Eight Gonorrhea
- Nine Human papilloma virus
- Ten Syphilis
- Eleven Hepatitis b and C
- Twelve Common symptoms of STDs
- Thirteen In what situations should I contact the doctor?
- Fourteen What are the preventive measures?
- Fifteen What are the diagnostic methods?
There are several basic methods of transmission of infections and bacteria, among which we should mention sex. Problems with the diseases that are transmitted sexually, for many years, cause a large number of discussions. Many diseases that are sexually transmitted, cause serious health problems. Difficulties affect the treatment process. That is why diseases transmitted through sexual contact, classified in separate groups, which we'll talk more.
The definition of an STD
STDs are a group of infections that can be transmitted by sexual contact. Typically, pathogens are sexually transmissible infections. For diseases that are sexually transmitted, often characterized by the absence of symptoms. Quite often an STD cease to show themselves, which can indicate worsening.
Other features include the following highlights:
- Most often, STDs are transmitted by unprotected sexual contact. However, some viruses, included in the group of STDs also enter the body through contaminated blood.
- Almost all sexually transmitted infections, affect fetal development and are passed to children through mother's milk.
- In women infection, sexually transmitted diseases, can cause the development of serious pathology. This may develop a disease that will cause infertility.
Of sexually transmitted disease may be incurable, others are treatable, which can drag on for years. Consider a detailed list of what are some diseases that penetrate sexually.
Classification of STDs
All pathogens that lead to diseases, sexually transmitted diseases, can be divided into the following groups:
- Bacterial infection.
- Viral pathogens.
- Protozoal infection.
- Parasitic disease.
In each group included quite a lot of pathogens that will cause development of various diseases.
You can highlight several diseases that belong to the group STI:
- Herpes infection.
- Papilloma virus.
- Genital candidiasis.
- HIV infection.
Some of them do not have symptoms in the first stage of development, others cause serious health problems immediately after infection. Some viral diseases, for example AIDS, and does not recover. Consider the features of diseases in greater detail.
Infections, sexually transmitted infections presented with chlamydia. The spread of bacteria: sexual contact, transmission of the pathogen from mother to fetus during childbirth and pregnancy itself. It is possible to distinguish the following moments:
- The incubation period is usually 2-6 weeks.
- When injected into the body of the woman is the defeat of the fallopian tubes, cervical canal, urethra, capsule of the liver. Disease of the genitourinary system in many cases leads to severe discomfort. Complications may cause the development of infertility.
- In contact with the pathogen in the male body can develop a disease that will strike the prostate and the urethra.
With timely treatment, which is represented by the adoption of prescribed antibiotics, it is possible to exclude the likelihood of complications.
Treating viral diseases special attention should be given to HIV-infection. Its features include the following highlights:
- After ingestion, the pathogen remains in it until death. Effective drugs that prevent or slow down the reproduction of virus, no.
- The infection is virtually asymptomatic. In a few weeksafter infection may manifest insignificant symptoms, which some confuse with the manifestation of a cold or another disease.
- Disease that develops in contact with HIV, attacks the immune system. As a result, infectious diseases that develop after the defeat of the immune system, manifested in its most severe form.
- The last stage of the virus leads to AIDS. In this disease, even the common cold causes symptoms can cause death.
With proper treatment, the length of life increases significantly. Know quite a few people who live diagnosed more than 10 years. However, this is only possible with strict adherence to established best practices.
As with all STDs, the infection occurs through sexual contact. However, trichomoniasis is transmitted and through everyday contact. The characteristics of the disease include:
- The incubation period can last up to 28 days.
- In men there is a loss of the urethra, in women: the urethra and labia.
Quite often, the course of the disease, developing in this case, passes without the manifestation of symptoms. However, the sexual partner, they can occur.
When considering the sexually transmitted infection, it should be noted herpes. Know him many people, since the weakening of the immune system often appear different kinds of rashes, most often on the lips. After penetration of the pathogen into the body it can reach the spinal cord, where it localizes and becomes immune to the effects of antibiotics. Distinguish between herpes simplex virus 1 and type 2. Both are sexually transmitted and have only a few differences in the manifested symptoms. Infection infection occurs through direct contact with infected area as well as through selection of the genital organs. The incubation period has a duration from 2 to 21 days.
To the characteristics of the manifested symptoms include:
- Clinical manifestation of the disease is the formation of bubbles.
- After some time, the bubbles burst, there is a release of large number of cells of the virus. Viral cells affect healthy tissue, which leads to even more bubbles.
- On the site of the rupture of bubbles formed by erosion, on the healing which sometimes requires at least one month.
It should be noted that after the passage of the clinical symptoms of the virus again becomes inactive phase. Stress and excessive exercise cause activation of many diseases, including those that develop because of activation of the herpes virus.
The microorganism which causes development of herpes can be transmitted through sexual selection, and in normal contact. Prevention in case of reporting of the virus is to abstain from contact until will be erosion.
Gonorrhea can be transmitted during various sexual intercourse and from a pregnant woman to her fetus. The incubation period in this case is 10 days. When this happens lose:
- Joint bursas.
- Cervical canal.
At hit of a virus in the body women and men the symptoms manifested in different ways. Examples would include a discharge of blood from the rectum, discomfort and burning sensation. Gonorrhea is one of the common pathogens of sexually transmitted diseases.
Human papilloma virus
Infection papillomavirus, sexually transmitted diseases are included in a separate group. There are pathogens of low and high oncogenicity. The most dangerous can be called the HPV high oncogenicity, as it causes development of cancer cells, which affects the cervix. The pathogen is transmitted sexually and affects the body equally women and men. An example can be called the manifestation of the following symptoms:
- The appearance of painless lesions in the anal and urogenital region.
- Women can develop rashes in the vagina or on the cervix.
- Men can appear of rash on the urinary channel.
Should pay attention to the fact that the disease may be completely asymptomatic. However, in women complications can cause the appearance of cancer cells. Therefore if there are signs of infection, she should undergo periodic examination in the prevention.
The infection of syphilis, sexually transmitted, is one of the most common and well known. According to the conducted research the number of infected increases every year. We should pay attention to the following points:
- A very large incubation period. As a rule, it lasts 21 days, but can last 90 days.
- In some cases, symptoms almost does not occur in other causes a lot of discomfort. In severe forms of the disease will cause serious complications.
- Quite a lot of problems the disease causes for the reason that the treatment must pass both partners. Otherwise to cure a disease is not possible as one partner will transmit the pathogen to another.
- Distinguishthree main stages of development of considered an infectious disease: primary, secondary and tertiary syphilis. Each has characteristic symptoms. Also separately allocate latent syphilis, in which there is practically no symptoms.
- The manifestation of the primary symptoms is the formation of ulcers on the genitals that result in itching and burning.
You should pay attention to the fact that many pathogens of sexually transmitted propeciaus mandatory. This is due to possible complications. Syphilis, which is manifested in an acute form, causes of development of pathological changes in the heart, brain and many other organs. Often, the acute form of the disease is cause of blindness. If not promptly to treat is the probability of a lethal outcome.
Hepatitis b and C
You should pay attention to the fact that in this group includes hepatitis. This disease can cause symptoms a variety of symptoms. When not treated there is a possibility of complications, which occur visceral. Hepatitis is a common disease, refers to those that are transmitted not only sexually.
Common symptoms of STDs
All diseases that belong to the group of STDs have similar symptoms. Examples would include the following points:
- Quite often there is unnatural discharge from the genitals, which can have unpleasant concentrated scent.
- Unnatural redness of the genitals, and appearance of swelling.
- Rashes of various types. It does not matter what type of pathogen: bacterial or viral. In most cases, the primary and most striking symptoms becomes education rashes of various types. However, their localization can be very different: in the genital area, both inside and outside, and other parts of the skin of the body.
- A strong sense of itching or burning.
- The appearance of pain in the groin. Thus most often the pain is manifested at the time of urination.
However, there are infections that enter the body and for a long time does not show, that is, the disease occurs in latent form. While the infected can transmit the pathogen to their sex partner. There are certain cases in which it is recommended to go to the doctor for blood tests.
In what situations should I contact the doctor?
There are certain situations in which it is recommended to consult your doctor for a referral for blood tests. An example is the following list of situations:
- Casual sexual intercourse. It is quite important point is the fact that by their appearance define many diseases is impossible, since they do not have clinical manifestations. Any casual intercourse, especially unprotected, it's a big risk for both partners.
- When you change a permanent sexual partner. Access to a doctor in such a situation cannot be called distrust. Many people do not suspect that you are a carrier of a dangerous pathogen, as it can be in the inactive phase or the disease occurs in latent form.
- If you experience any of the above symptoms in the case of coincidence in time with unprotected intercourse.
A common mistaken belief is the fact that antibiotics will reduce the manifestation of symptoms and will develop various complications. To combat infectious diseases more suited antibiotics of a particular group. There are drugs which have a General antibacterial and viral effects. But in many cases they do more harm than good.
Recently, the antibiotic began to spread only as directed by your doctor. This is due to the fact that the self they may have a negative impact on the body, weaken immunity, cause exacerbation of chronic diseases. It is therefore recommended to use products from this group only as directed by doctors.
What are the preventive measures?
Everyone should know what there are preventive measures that can prevent the spread of infectious diseases. This is because some infections can enter the body not only sexually but, for example, with a normal contact. Then the sexual partner will pass the infection.
The most common recommendations on compliance prevention measures include the following points:
- Correct and consistent use of male and female contraceptives, which are represented by the condoms. It is quite important to buy quality condoms, the expiration date has not expired. This is because the use of substandard latex becomes a cause of condom breakage during sexual intercourse.
- Microbicides, when used correctly, can also significantly reduce the likelihood of transmission of some infections that are spread bycontact. But they cannot, for example, to prevent the transmission of syphilis or HIV infection.
- As previously noted, even if the sexual relations with only one partner there is a probability of transmission during sexual intercourse. Therefore, periodic surveys eliminates the likelihood that the infection will affect the body and cause various kinds of complications.
- The manifestation of clinical signs, a significant deterioration of health should refrain from sexual intercourse.
- Upon detection of the disease should notify their sexual partner. The probability that the disease will develop in a latent form. If the sexual partner time to be examined and, if necessary, will be assigned the appropriate treatment, in some cases, the disease will not cause harm.
- Against some infections in recent vaccination. The injected medicines contribute to the development of immunity. This point means that even when infected with the disease will be mild and the treatment will be much faster.
Not the whole list of diseases STDs group becomes the reason of serious illnesses, but the discomfort, pain and complication of relations with the sexual partner is virtually guaranteed. Therefore, unprotected sexual intercourse, sharing of sex toys are only appropriate if both partners trust each other, have no other relationship and look after my hygiene and health. Otherwise, it is better to resort to preventive measures.
In addition, do not forget that some of the infection from the above group can be transmitted not only through sexual contact, but also household method. An example can be called Trichomonas, which with high humidity can maintain its activity for a long time. Therefore, it is recommended to use only your own towels. Pubic lice or the causative agent of scabies is transmitted as sex, and conventional household means, for example, via household items. HIV and hepatitis can transmit by parenteral routes.
What are the diagnostic methods?
Many infectious diseases have bright symptoms. Therefore, diagnosis is often in examination of the patient. However, a more accurate diagnosis can only be made in the capture and study of smears of the blood samples. For some diseases and physical manifestations are not typical, i.e. the pain, itching and discomfort may be missing.
Recently, the following methods of laboratory research:
- The method of growing colonies of the pathogen in a nutrient medium. This method is used long enough, to determine the susceptibility of the pathogen to different types of antibiotics. The disadvantage is that for the cultivation of the colonies required a lot of time.
- Application of methods of ELISA and MIF for the detection of antigens.
- PCR method is a modern method of investigation of the obtained samples. Despite the relatively high complexity of conducting such laboratory studies, this method is used quite often, as it allows to accurately determine the features of development of diseases. It is based on the study of the DNA of the pathogen.
- Detection of antibodies in blood – a method that has been used for many years. The immune system reacts to contact with any bacteria or infection in the body, which is manifested by production of antibodies. This method allows to obtain only a positive or negative result, use it to forecast the development of the disease impossible.
Any of the above methods may be prescribed by a doctor to determine whether the infection. The usual blood test, which is done quite often, can also indicate that the body is fighting the infection even when no symptoms.
In conclusion, we note that the intentional infection to any person on the territory of Russia and many other countries entails criminal liability. That is why a person who knows about the presence of a pathogen of this group, a feature of HIV infection and hepatitis, have to warn their sexual partners about it. The law governing the issue in question, separately marked HIV transmission and penalties, which can consist of restriction of liberty. In this case the transmission path is irrelevant. Special attention to this point, have to pay medical staff, as if it is the infection of the patient due to their negligence assigned to special punishment with real imprisonment term. Introduced criminal liability are defined with the fact that getting HIV infection in the body leads to a considerable reduction in lifespan and its quality.