Peripheral nervous system - diseases

It consists of the anterior and posterior spinal roots, spinal ganglia, spinal nerves and their plexus, the intervertebral spinal ganglia, peripheral nerves. Even this includes the roots, cranial nerves and their ganglia.

Peripheral nervous system


Anatomy of peripheral nerves: front and rear roots situated with each other, create radicular nerve, which is located to the ganglion. After stretches ganglion spinal nerve. The nerves that emerges from the intervertebral holes, are beginning to split into back branches that conduct the impulse in the back and neck, front branches conduct the impulse to the body, legs and arms. The intercostal muscles are formed of the sternal segments of the anterior branches, branches of the cervical, lumbar and sacral segments merge together to form a collectively woven bundles for all divisions of the spine. These bundles branch off of the peripheral nerve trunks or nerves.

Nerves of the peripheral nervous system belong to the mixed types because they contain the motor fibers of the anterior horn, sensory fibers and vasomotor-trophic fibers.

The nerve fibers of the peripheral nervous system appear in the form of a Central cylinder covered with a myelin sheath, which is protective. This shell can sometimes be narrowed, making interceptions Rainier. These interceptions are used for enterprises with Chvanovsky shell. In addition to protecting myelin sheath is an electrical insulator, thereby helping cylinder to carry out various metabolic processes. Connective tissue plays the role of the sheaths that clothe directly to a nerve trunk, the bundles of nerve fibers. In these shells penetrate blood vessels, which supply nerve everything you need.

Classification of diseases of the PNS

In order to sort of the disease of the peripheral nervous system has created a special classification. This classification was made depending on various factors of the disease:

Classification according to the principle of topographic anatomy isolated:

  • radiculitis,
  • funikulit,
  • plexitis,
  • manometric,
  • polyneuritis (inflammation of multiple peripheral nerves),
  • multimetric or numerous monometric (damage to multiple peripheral nerves).

According to the etiology classification of diseases of the peripheral nervous system is divided into:

  • Infectious:
  • viral (polyneuritis Guillain-Barr, flu, etc.),
  • microbial (in brucellosis, syphilis, leptospirosis, etc.).
  • Infectious-allergic (asanteni for childhood infections: measles).
  • Toxic:
  • in chronic intoxications,
  • when poisoning (botulism, diphtheria),
  • neoplastic (cancer of the mammary glands, etc.).
  • Allergic: (vaccination, serum, etc.).
  • Dysmetabolic: if there are not enough elements in the pathology of the endocrine glands.
  • Dyscirculatory: for different types of vasculitis.
  • Idiopathic and hereditary (neural amyotrophy Charcot-Marie, etc.).
  • Mechanical damage to the peripheral nervous system.

This classification helps to correctly identify the disease.

Problems of neurological nature are on the third level, after acute respiratory infections and home accidents.

Infectious diseases of the peripheral nervous system:

Syphilis

Syphilis is a bacterial disease that is transmitted sexually.

Bacterium that causes the disease called Treponema pallidum. This slow-disease. Peripheral nervous system is affected by syphilis just for the last stages. It is formed very rarely and only to those who are not treated.

At risk are the elderly and children. In addition to development of syphilis can be affected by improper use of medicines, mental disorders, skin lesions, drinking large quantities of alcohol, chronic illness. As a rule, late-stage syphilis can appear after 6 years, but inthe last time period increased significantly to 10 years.

What is the causative agent of the disease?

Treponema pallidum – the bacterium's spiral shape, twisted in the 8-14 curls. Most Treponema pallidum during infection loves to be in the intercellular gaps, the bloodstream, the nervous fibers. She is very picky, so its cultivation, usually use sophisticated culture and oxygen-free conditions. However, the negative side is that the cultured Treponema pallidum is capable of rapidly losing their pathogenic and morphological properties.

In the environment this organism has a hypersensitivity to the effects of external factors. Therefore, when the output from the body it can easily undergo various chemical processes, drying, and the influence of the sun. If Treponema pallidum came to household use, then it will have its virulence to that time, she did not die. Fever 42-43S first affects their activity, and then they die. If they are heated to 65C, then they can die within 10 minutes, and if the temperature exceeds 100C – instantly. Lower temperatures do not kill microorganisms, so they can be stored in an anaerobic environment from -30 to -60C.

The symptoms of tertiary syphilis

If you run the disease, after a time, the disease can lead to death.

Tertiary syphilis may cause damage to tissues and organ systems. Syphilis can last a very long time. In the process of the disease begin to appear psychological disorders, memory disorders, mood swings, depression, anger, loss of hearing, vision, and paralysis. Frequent hallucinations, euphoria, can make them creative individuals with unstable psyche.

One of the main features is the formation of infectious granulomas – a collection of cells in tissues in the form of large nodes, which in the future turn into ulcers, scarring in the future.

Very important: one of the first bells of the emergence of syphilis in women is swelling of the labia in connection with enlarged lymph nodes.

Gum are nodes, of large size, which are formed under the skin. When it opened, it also forms an ulcer. They can form on the mucous membrane, palate, nasal bones. If you run the disease, the gum can destroy soft tissues and bones system. On the site of the ulcers, the scar is formed, which is deformed and the most common result is the ceasing of the nose.

Papulose syphilides. The resulting mound looks like a flat or hemispherical in shape, with a red-blue shade and clear outlines. Infiltration of tubercle secretiruetsa and forms an ulcer. In one case, after the release of tubercle atrophy occurs in another after ulcer scarring that are close to each other that are slightly pigmented. Repeated rashes on the scars will not appear. The scar is mostly formed in place papulose syphilid.

How to treat tertiary syphilis?

It is important to conduct a thorough treatment, to avoid any problems and complications in the future. The first step is to stimulate the immune system of the sick person to drink a course of multivitamins products. If you do not treat disease – this could cause of antibiotics resistance and serotonergically when the blood remains elevated antibody titre.

The most effective treatment is intravenous antibiotics penicillin. This treatment should be carried out only in the hospital because when such treatment is necessary to introduce the medicine every few hours throughout the month.

If a pregnant woman has syphilis, her baby could be born with chronic syphilis.

Leptospirosis

Leptospirosis is a disease that is transmitted from animals to humans. The causative agent of leptospirosis is Leptospira interrogans. It can cause damage to the kidneys, liver and can also cause problems on the part of the peripheral nervous system, due to intoxication. The incubation period can last for several months.

What is this pathogen?

Leptospira interrogans is a bacterium in the form of a spiral wands that are related to gram-negative aerobic microorganisms. They are quite stable in the environment, Leptospira pathogenic groups are destroyed by sunlight and high temperatures. These bacteria love water and can live there for up to 4 weeks. On dry land, the life expectancy of bacteria ranges up to 2 hours in the marshes is about 11 months. Well resistant to frost and can survive the winter. In products they can live for a few days. Under the influence of 1% hydrochloric acid they are able to die within 25 minutes.

Distributors in the animal world are rodents, mammals that eat insects. Among farm animals is pigs, cows, bulls, horses, rabbits, dogs. During the illness the animal is highly contagious, but the person is unable to transmit leptospirosis.

The spread of the disease is usually fecal-oral mechanism and by water, and alimentary and contact ways. Human infection occurs through mucous membranes or damaged skin. To actually get infected when bathing in dirty pond or ifwork person connected with the care of animals. People have a high threshold of sensitivity to leptospirosis. After recovery, formed long and strong immunity, however, there is a probability of re-infection.

The symptoms of leptospirosis

Ripening period first signs can last from several days to 4 weeks.

The disease begins abruptly with fever, chills, pronounced symptoms of intoxication:

  • shiver,
  • severe pain in the head,
  • pain in muscles and tendons,
  • sleep disturbance,
  • muscular weakness,
  • rapid weight loss,
  • loss of appetite,
  • pasty face.
If so happened that you were bitten by a dog or a rat, be sure to go to the doctor for a consultation. If you do not know an animal is sick or not, this can be a direct source of disease.

Also often patients noted cold sores in the lips and nose.

Korkoobraznymi rashes appear on the body after 3 days. They can last from 3 hours to several days.

One of the terrible symptoms include bleeding and petechiae. Defeat hemorrhagic rash may occur in the area of the armpits, folds of the elbows, hematuria, hemorrhages from various organs.

If the disease is severe, then it may be a defeat of the respiratory system. Can disrupt heart function (drop in blood pressure, muted pulse, rhythm changes).

The fever may last up to weeks and then the temperature returns to normal or severely reduced, indicating a loss of strength of the patient. Sometimes the fever may recur.

If the time to provide proper treatment, the likely recovery within months.

How to treat leptospirosis?

People who got sick must be immediately hospitalized to prevent severe illness and consequences.

At the time of fever, the patient shows a bed rest. Also a special diet is prescribed not to irritate the kidneys and liver that are affected by the disease.

In addition therapy, medication in the form of antibiotics (ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, doxycycline). In addition you need to make the immunoglobulins, and also to rid the body of toxic action of bacteria.

If there comes hepatic or renal failure, that need to be treated with more intensive therapy.

Bathe only in the resolved reservoirs that have been tested. Do not allow children to drink water from rivers or reservoirs.

Brucellosis

Brucellosis is an animal disease, which can get sick. The organ in this disease can be strong and heavy.

Pathogens that cause lose of the body can be several: has been previously exposed to B., B. abortus, B. suis, B. canis, and they all belong to the genus Brucella. They are very resistant to environmental influences. Their shape is rounded oval, size small, flagella lacking. They belong to the group of obligate aerobes. These bacteria do not form spores. Brucella belong to the gram-negative bacteria and possess low enzymatic properties.

Brucellosis appears with pathogenic bacteria:

  • V. has been previously exposed to the causative agent of brucellosis, which lives mainly among small ruminants and is able to cause severe lesions of the human body.
  • B. Suis and B. canis are pathogens of reindeer and wild animals.
  • B. Abortus is the causative agent of brucellosis also causes damage to the human body, but this infection that belongs to animals. Since it is an obligate aerobe, it is necessary to grow 11% carbon dioxide. A suitable temperature for their growth and life – 37S.
    Do not buy meat products on the market, or ask for the certificate attesting the quality of the products. It is home meat most of all is the risk of infection.

These bacteria usually acquire liver or blood agar and compile environment with the addition of glucose, glycerine. Cultivation notes they have a slow growth, which lasts for 2 weeks.

These bacteria tolerate low temperatures. The meat in the freezer, they can be stored up to six months, and in the milk up to six months. They die at high temperatures (boiling) and disinfectants.

How do you get brucellosis?

The disease occurs everywhere. Can begin from small outbreaks to epidemics. Disease carriers – domestic and farm animals: pigs, goats, cows, bulls. People who suffer from this disease, cannot be a source of infection.

Diseases can be transmitted to humans from animals (i.e., the contact and care for animals that are already infected) or through the alimentary. The causes of this disease can be a professional or with the wrong products treatment of meat and dairy origin. It is especially dangerous that there was an injury to the peripheral nervous system. Mostly people get sick, have a profession milkmaids, shepherds. The organism is transmitted to man through the injured skin surface, mucous glands and respiratory tract, eye infection.

What symptoms appear when brucellosis?

In this disease there are severe symptoms, especially the peripheral nervous system. Often she can go inchronic stage – chronostasis. Brucellosis – cyclical. Brucella can enter the re-education of General and local reaction. In addition to allergic reactions, intoxication, these diseases can cause damage to tissues and organs.

Females who get sick with brucellosis, may be fruitless. So every six months is necessary preventive inspection of animals.

Time microbial growth is up to 20 days.

Brucellosis causes the following symptoms:

  • a strong increase in temperature,
  • severe sweating,
  • back pain (sciatica),
  • pain in the joints of the limbs,
  • sleep disturbance,
  • deterioration of the General condition, due to disorders of the peripheral nervous system,
  • decreased appetite,
  • weakness, drowsiness.

If the first symptoms, then it is better not to ignore, because it is possible to earn complications. After an illness grown of relative weak immunity. And when he disappears, then people may again fall ill with this disease.

Greater susceptibility are animals. These include: Guinea pigs, mice, hares, rabbits.

Treatment usually consists of antibiotics and improve the immune system.

Not to be infected by brucellosis, it is necessary to make vaccination.