What pathology are the diseases of the nervous system?

Nervous system

The human body is like a huge metropolis. Each apartment in it is cage. To it through the vessels like water, act water, minerals and other necessary elements. Waste products disposed of through the lymphatic system as the sewer. And the wiring can be compared with the nerve endings. We all know that if there is no electricity, and fully use the living room impossible. Same thing with the nervous system. If it is damaged, it's a serious damage to human health.

Violation of the integrity of cellular structures leads to an inflammatory process. It aims primarily to eliminate the effects of damage. Inflammation can occur for many reasons, but most often it is caused by infectious agents, in particular pathogenic bacteria. They can choose the target of its parasitism of any organs and tissues. But there are those that "love" is the nerve cells and cause damage exclusively to them. Also there are options when alteration is not caused by the bacteria, and its toxins, which are harmful only to the nervous system, while virtually not affecting the other.

Inflammatory diseases of the nervous system threat. They are accompanied by serious complications. And this is not surprising, because the nerves send signals to the heart and the diaphragm, thereby providing circulation and respiration. This is a vital function. Without them life is impossible.

The development of inflammation of the nervous system due to bacteria can be avoided if you follow preventive guidelines.

If the affected is the medulla, the first stop they. It is very important that the inflammatory process with further oedema did not affect this brain region.

Purulent meningitis

Purulent meningitis

Meningococcus is a dangerous infectious agent. Its prevalence is large, many people are carriers. When the immune system of an infected person is weakened and not working properly, there are no symptoms does not happen, or may receive only a banal cold. Of course, this has not been given attention, and the doctors people often do not apply. If the immune system is weak, the causative agent through the nasal mucosa into the blood and shock will spread to all organs and tissues. Entering through the blood-brain barrier, it will cause the inflammation of the meninges, which will lead to the development of purulent meningitis.

Meningococcus is the most common cause of purulent meningitis. But not only can it penetrate to the nerves through the blood. Along with it inflammation of the meninges can cause the following bacteria:

  • pneumococcus,
  • Haemophilus wand,
  • staphylococcus,
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis,
  • Treponema pallidum,
  • Leptospira,
  • Brucella, etc.

Form of meningitis caused by these pathogen are rare. Recognized difficult. Going hard, in contrast to meningococcal lesions of the nervous system. In the absence of adequate and timely treatment, the patient may die because antibiotics destroy the meningococcus, the bacteria acts weakly.

The clinical picture of purulent meningitis

Meningitis develops rapidly. It begins with high fever (to 39.0 to 40.0 ° C and above). Always marked headaches. May be catarrhal symptoms (runny nose, rare dry cough, irritation and discomfort in the throat). There are still common symptoms of intoxication:

  • lethargy,
  • adynamia,
  • absence of appetite,
  • refusal to drink.

May be also vomiting not related to meal or liquid. Headaches are increasing. Aggravated by sharp movements of head and strong sound or bright light.

With the second-third day to the above symptoms include the so-called meningeal signs. This specific signs of meningitis, which can be suspect. Up to this point the clinical picture very similar to acute respiratory viral infection, and patients with doctors in a hospital not sent. So often diagnostics and etiotropic treatment late.

To meningeal symptoms include:

  • stiff neck,
  • kernig,
  • upper and lower symptoms Brudzinskogo.

The presence of at least one of these signs in a patientis a reason to send him to the hospital, and two more – reason to do a spinal tap. Approximately half of the cases in patients with meningitis appears specific to small hemorrhages in the skin (hemorrhagic rash).

Diagnosis of purulent meningitis

For absolute diagnosis of purulent meningitis is required to do a spinal tap to obtain CSF. His analysis clearly indicate not only the presence of the inflammation in the meninges, but also on the cause (viral or bacterial). In the cerebrospinal fluid in purulent meningitis is defined leukocytosis and a slight increase in the amount of protein. For a more accurate diagnosis is bacteriological examination of blood, mucus from the nasopharynx and cerebrospinal fluid.

Treatment of purulent meningitis

Etiotropic treatment of purulent meningitis is the appointment of adequate antibiotic therapy. The choice of drug depends on the causative agent. Before the results of bacteriological examination, the patient is assigned broad-spectrum antibiotics. After identification of the pathogen adjust therapy based on sensitivity to a particular antimicrobial agent. Of pathogenetic therapy of drugs used in the following groups:

  • antipyretics (fever),
  • antihistaminic,
  • diuretic,
  • nootropics,
  • drugs that improve the blood circulation etc.
Patients with purulent meningitis in the midst of the disease lay in the intensive care unit or in ICU (intensive care unit). When it begins to show positive dynamics, they are transferred to a regular ward.

Microbial encephalitis

Microbial encephalic

The bacteria can attack the meninges, but the brain. This microbial disease is called encephalitis. Often it occurs against a background of meningitis. Deadly. If the patient survives, then one hundred percent of cases, becomes disabled. The consequences of inflammation of the brain caused by infectious agents that remain for a long time, mostly for life. Usually affects white matter, but in rare cases the process may switch to grey.

Microbial encephalitis is usually caused by the following microorganisms:

  • staphylococcus,
  • streptococci,
  • toxoplasm,
  • Treponema pallidum,
  • Rickettsia etc.

In most cases, it is secondary. This means that the first bacterial lesion appears in the brain and any other organ or system. When the infection reaches the peak of their pathogenic possibilities, with blood pathogens spread throughout the body. If they penetrate the blood-brain barrier, it will cause inflammation of the brain.

The clinical picture is microbial encephalitis

The disease begins suddenly. The first symptom is a high fever (up to 39,0-40,0 ° C). It lasts a long time (3-4 days). Bad reduced the usual antipyretics (Paracetamol, Ibuprofen). Is accompanied by a fever. Can be in the form of a wave or rush of two waves with an interval of 2-7 days. When there is double wavelengths hyperthermia, in most cases, develop meningeal or focal symptoms.

Microbial in addition to encephalitis fever is accompanied by the following signs:

Pain in the eyes

  • severe headache,
  • nausea,
  • vomiting,
  • hyperemia of the face, neck and chest,
  • pain in the eyes,
  • photophobia,
  • pain in the abdomen,
  • loose stools etc.
When the inflammatory process involves the meninges, accompanied by meningeal signs (see Purulent meningitis).

If the affected brain, there is a so-called focal symptoms:

  • hypertonus,
  • hyperreflexia,
  • clonus of the foot,
  • bulbar syndrome (aphonia, dysphagia, paralysis of the tongue),
  • anisocoria,
  • hyperkinesis (trochaic, athetoid, myoclonia),
  • mono - and hemiparesis, etc.

The symptoms are specific for brain lesions. Combined with signs of an infectious process, it helps to suspect encephalitis. In severe within the patient develops coma.

Microbial diagnosis of encephalitis

Microbial etiological diagnosis of encephalitis includes bacteriological examination with determination of the pathogen and to clarify its serotype. To do this, take the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. For quick use of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and PCR (polymerasechain reaction). For a more accurate analysis using Phragmites (reaction of indirect hemagglutination) and HAI (reaction of inhibition of hemagglutination).

Treatment of microbial encephalitis

The main thing in the treatment of microbial encephalitis proper selection of antibiotic. Considering the seriousness of this disease, after further use of the pathogen specific immunoglobulins and serum. Intensively carried out anticonvulsant therapy, and detoxification. Fighting with brain edema using diuretics. When coma is oxygen. To stop focal symptoms, using drugs that improve blood supply to brain cells and vitamins of group B.

How to prevent diseases of the nervous system?

Prevention of diseases of the nervous systembacterial nature first and foremost includes compliance with the rules of hygiene. Germs is a mess. You need to avoid any effects. It is crucial to treat infectious diseases caused by Rickettsia, pale Treponema, staphylococci and streptococci. Be sure to ask for help from doctors. Strengthening the immune system by using the hardening will not allow bacteria to penetrate the blood brain barrier. Avoiding mass congestion of people in the epidemically dangerous periods of time, it is possible to prevent the contamination of not only the meningococcus and other respiratory infections.

The author of the article Andrey Markov, a pediatrician, Chita