Diseases of the nervous system in children: types, types and their description
Diseases of the nervous system in children, caused by any microorganism, always pose a threat to the health and sometimes life. The causative agent may be a representative microcosm: bacteria, viruses, fungi, etc., the infection starts after the penetration of the pathogen into the nervous tissue or (more rarely) compared to other diseases, including infectious nature.
Among all the existing diseases, the following types: meningitis, polio, encephalitis.
If the pathological process involved not only shell, but the fabric of the child's brain, diagnosed, meningo-encephalitis.
Regardless of the nature (infective) meningitis is characterized by common symptoms: headache (in neonates it is accompanied by severe crying), impaired General condition, fever. The headache is becoming stronger under the influence of any stimuli (light, sound). In addition, the child may be vomiting, seizures which are not associated with meals. Another important sign of inflammation – rigidity (compactness) of the muscles of the head, that is displayed in maximum flexion of the neck and tilting the head back. The symptom Kernig experts also judge the possible disease. It is manifested in the following: the child is placed in a horizontal position, with his leg bent, straighten that joint is bad on the reason behind back pain. As for newborns and children up to 1.5 years is when the disease, especially when the baby is crying, bulges the large Fontanelle. In severe cases in newborns protrusion occurs even at rest because of increased pressure inside the skull. Meningitis is often accompanied by convulsive disorder.
Common pathogens of meningitis are:
Disease in a child caused by this virus can be in the form of outbreaks transmitted through food and through the air. After hitting the first signs are observed after approximately 7 days. This pathology begins as a newborn and an adult child with headaches. Visually, the face and the sclera of the eyes become red. All over body rash visible in patches. Sick little excited, sleeps badly. During the meningitis benign. Seeding of the cerebrospinal fluid and the fever does not last more than 3 weeks.
The treatment will involve the administration of drugs to eliminate signs, i.e. antipyretics, analgesics and other means. If you are concerned about a severe headache, then the doctor can be recommended puncture.
Tuberculous meningitis (causative agent of tubercle Bacillus)
Is almost always secondary, that is, develops in the presence of existing infectious process. Typical symptoms: lack of exercise (reduction of motor activity of the child), hyperthermia, lack of appetite, symptoms that are characteristic of meningitis. Possible paresis (partial paralysis), drooping eyelids, strabismus. When taking cerebrospinal fluid it flows under high pressure. The treatment will consist in the appointment of antibacterial drugs, detrimental impact on Mycobacterium tuberculosis. As a causal treatment is assigned: "Ftivazid", "Streptomycin", "PASK".
Often ill children in the first three years. Typical symptoms are: deterioration of General health (fever, vomiting without nausea, anxiety, etc.). Newborns and children under one year strongly bulges Fontanelle and presence of meningeal signs. Prove the nature of the disease a peculiar rash with hemorrhage inside shaped like small stars. They are slightly raised above the skin level and occur on the lower extremities, the back. After a time, it may cause inflammation of the joints and membrane of the eye. If you take the cerebrospinal fluid, it is cloudy, it revealed a large content of leukocytes, protein, and meningococcal disease – pathogens. They are found in skin scrapings, as well as in the synovial fluid. Forecast this meningitis for life serious. Treatment involves antibiotics: meningococci are sensitive to penicillin. Together with it can be assigned to sulfonamides, and corticosteroids.
A disease of viral nature, which is transmitted mainly through dirty hands and through the air and mainly affects some areas of the spinal cord – called polio. The latent period lasts no more than 10 days. The symptoms of the disease in the newborn depend on the stage. In preparationsto period there are General signs of intoxication, malaise. The symptoms characteristic of lesions of the nervous system: drowsiness, convulsions of the limbs, delirium, tenderness of the muscles of the limbs, etc. In the paralytic period there are typical paresis (partial paralysis) and paralysis (complete paresis). Severe form of the disease is accompanied by the defeat of the vital centers of the brain, which can lead to the death of a child. The recovery period is marked complete or partial recovery. In the period of residual effects symptoms of paralysis, showing lesions of the nervous system.
Treatment is reduced to immediate hospitalization and the administration of gamma globulin.
The inflammatory process in the tissues of the brain as a child and adult is called encephalitis. Depending on the nature it may be viral (e.g., tick-borne), secondary and encephalomielitis (often in newborns after influenza, rubella, etc.). Common symptoms: rapid onset of disease, change, consciousness up to coma, drowsiness, convulsions, the occurrence of paresis and meningeal symptoms. The child may be compromised breathing and also visual disturbances. Children with suspected encephalitis hospitalityat and conduct the following therapeutic activities. When tick-borne encephalitis serum is introduced, with encephalitis, which occurred on the background introduced the vaccine, administered gamma globulin, an antibiotic is prescribed. According to the testimony introduced drugs to eliminate seizures, temperature, disruptions of the heart in newborns.
Any of the above symptoms require immediate referral to a specialist. Otherwise, deterioration can lead to serious changes in health or death of a child.