Vaccination against meningococcal disease name of vaccine

Characteristics of infectious diseases and the feasibility of vaccination against meningococcal disease – basic information

Meningococcal disease is a dangerous bacterial infection that is threatening, especially to infants, young children and adolescents. This files most often invasive disease present with meningitis or blood poisoning (sepsis). Over the last 10 years in our country serious diseases caused by infection of meningococcus sick around 60-110 people a year on average 1-2 people a week, and every year due to this infection die from 3 to 16 patients.

Privivka ot meningokokkovoj infekcii nazvanie vakciny

Meningococcal disease has vague symptoms, such as fever, headache, weakness – i.e., the same symptoms as any other disease. The symptoms often resemble the initial stage of flu. Thus, meningococcal disease is often detected at an advanced stage, and may lead, despite the best medical care, to death.

Even though the current level of medical care, dying every ten patients, two out of ten survivors have serious and permanent consequences such as brain damage, loss of limbs, hearing loss, problems with learning.

Meningococcal disease is transmitted by airborne droplets from person to person. Most infants and young children infected from people who care for them, or children's groups. The source of infection usually is people not having any symptoms and carry the meningococcus in the mucosa of the nasopharynx.

Bacteria that cause infectious diseases of this type are called Neisseria meningitidis. There are several different serogroups. Of the five main serogroups (A, B, C, W135 and Y) are now the most widespread in our country, as in Europe, the group In, calling four of the five cases in children of early age.

Because of the prevalence of the disease and the severity of the complications that it causes, the following paragraphs will focus on vaccines against Neisseria meningitides.

Prevention of meningitis

The best defense against this disease is immunization.

Meningococcal disease – vaccination

The vaccine against meningitis (serogroup B) – BEXSERO

Intended for use in children from 2 months of age and adults, the only licensed vaccine against the most common groups of meningococcus (about 75% of cases), causing disease and mortality in the country. Because of the variability of the antigens of serogroup B vaccination can generate protection against all meningococcus group B.

Privivka ot meningokokkovoj infekcii nazvanie vakciny

Vaccine meningitis (serogroups A, C, W135 and Y) – NIMENRIX, MENVEO

Combined tetractine against four of serogroups A, C, W-135, Y, is recommended for use in children aged 12 months and adults (NIMENRIX) or in childrenages 2 years and in adults (MENVEO). Vaccine group tetracyn are the most suitable of the available vaccines to ensure the broadest possible protection available, especially for frequent travellers, young people. Y component contained in tetravycline, provides protection against meningococcus serogroup Y, which in our country is the biggest culprit for the high mortality rate of all serogroups.

Vaccination against meningococcal disease serogroup C – NeisVac-C Menjugate

Monovalent polysaccharide conjugate vaccine against serogroup With rekomendovany for use in children from 2 months, adolescents and adults. Vaccines protect against infections that are caused only by meningococci of serogroup C.

Who needs vaccination?

Vaccination against meningococcal disease, especially recommended for:

  • Children aged 2 months to 2 years of age against serogroup C In the preferred application for the first six months of life.
  • Children aged 13 to 15 years.
  • Teenagers and young people, especially, before entering the Universities, educational institutions providing residential care due to the presence of individual risk (participation in music festivals, public events, stay in large groups).
  • Persons leaving or arriving in countries with giperarifmeticheskie or epidemic incidence of meningococcal disease.

Useful tips

The vaccine BEXSERO, it is advisable to vaccinate children in infancy – i.e., already in the first or second half of life, vaccination against the most common serogroup of meningococci to repeat after one year combined tetractine NIMENRIX or MENVEO against other, more rare, serogroups A, C, W135 and Y.

The older children, who have not been vaccinated against meningococcal disease, you can vaccinate at any time during the life as vaccines BEXSERO and MENVEO or NIMENRIX can be introduced in one day the two vaccines.

The number of doses of vaccine BEXSERO

Privivka ot meningokokkovoj infekcii nazvanie vakciny
  • Children aged 2-5 months – 3 doses at monthly intervals + 4 dose at age 12 to 23 months.
  • Children age 6-11 months – 2 doses with interval of at least 2 months + 3 dose in the second year of life.
  • Children aged 12-23 months – 2 doses with interval of at least 2 months + 3 dose within 1-2 years after the first dose.
  • Children aged 2-10 years – 2 doses with interval of at least 2 months.
  • Children after 11 years and adults – 2 doses with an interval of at least 1 month.

The number of doses of MENVEO and NIMENRIX

  • MENVEO for children 2-years – single dose every 5 years.
  • NIMENRIX for children from 1 year – single dose every 5 years.

What is insidious meningococcus?

Read all the important information about meningococcal disease (meningitis and sepsis) and vaccination against these diseases. When and how to get vaccinated, what to pay attention? How the disease is transmitted and manifests itself?

Invasive meningococcal disease is caused, as already mentioned, the meningococcus. This bacterium exists in 13 serogroups, groups B, C and Y in our country are the most common. The bacteria are transmitted by airborne droplets, the source is solely. The incubation period is relatively short: 1-7 days. The disease can strike at any age, but for two age groups, the risk is great – children aged up to 4 years and adolescents aged 15-20 years. For adolescents the risk factors include increased physical and mental loads (camps, sports events), smoky and crowded spaces (e.g., disco).

As meningococcus manifested?

The disease develops very quickly, although problems often begin inconspicuously. The first symptoms (fatigue, headache, abdominal pain, and muscle) are similar to the symptoms of flu, but usually last only for few hours. Subsequently, the skin may appear as small red spots or bruises, people become lethargic and disoriented. These conditions are a symptom of blood poisoning (sepsis), and this requires immediate hospitalization. Skin damage does not always occur. A guide for parents, something unusual and dangerous is the rapid development of the deterioration of the General condition of the child. Man, in spite of a quick help, can die due to septic shock, organ failure. The mortality rate is about 10-15%.

Privivka ot meningokokkovoj infekcii nazvanie vakciny

Meningococcal infection may also leave behind far-reaching consequences – loss of muscle, sometimes requires amputation of fingers or parts of limbs may lead to loss of hearing, vision, brain damage, epilepsy, etc.

The salvation of man, in the case of meningococcal infection, always plays a decisive role in the speed at which he provided medical help. The interval between the start of disease and death in invasive meningococcal disease, on average, of 24.6 hours.

What are vaccines?

Meningitis vaccines available in our country, besides the already mentioned BEXSERO, NIMENRIX andMENVEO:

  • Meningococcal Polys. A+C.
  • Menjugate (conjugate vaccine against type C).
  • NeisVac C (conjugate vaccine against type C).

The effect of the first vaccine directed against meningococcal serogroup A and C, and two others against disease caused by meningococcal group C. NIMENRIX and MENVEO opposed to 4 groups: A, C, Y, W135. The BEXSERO vaccine against group, and is available from April 2014.

Vaccination scheme

Meningococcal Polys. A+C can be used for children 2 years of age. Revaccination is recommended in 2-4 years. However, after re-vaccination, the vaccine loses its effectiveness.

NeisVac C can be vaccinated from two months. Within 1 year requires 2 doses with a minimum interval of two months between doses. Children 12 months to adults only need one dose. Vaccination INFANRIX HEXA and NeisVac C showed no significant difference in the immune response.

Menjugate, a vaccine is used the same as NeisVac C. Tetravalent vaccine MENVEO is recommended for vaccinating under 2 years, only one dose. Vaccine NIMENRIX is designed for children aged 1 year, also you need only one dose.

For all of these vaccines, revaccination is recommended after 5 to 7 years – the younger man was during the first vaccination, the shorter the interval should be before revaccination. Before a booster is not required identify the condition of antibodies against the meningococcus.

In any case, it is advisable to defer vaccination?

Vaccination is not recommended for people who have ever had an allergic reaction to any component of the vaccine (including tetanus toxoid).

To postpone vaccination should be the case, if a person has symptoms of infection (temperature, sore throat, etc.).

If the person suffering from the disease, which can reduce blood clotting (hemophilia) or has, for any reason, the weakening of the immune system, the decision on vaccination is taken by the doctor.

Vaccination during pregnancy and lactation

Pregnant women are advised to wait with vaccinations, as well as with a booster. However, if there is a risk of infection, the decision on vaccination is taken by the doctor. Breastfeeding is not a contraindication for vaccination, but some manufacturers also recommend to carefully consider the potential risks (in accordance with the physician's assessment) and vaccinate only in isolated cases.

What can be side effects of vaccination?

As a very frequent reactions (≥ 10%) represented by the following:

  • Redness at the injection site.
  • The pain in my arm.
  • Irritability.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Diarrhea.
  • Vomiting.
  • Nausea.
  • Loss of appetite in children of early age.

All of these reactions soon cease spontaneously. They are more common in young children than in adults, and depends primarily on which specific vaccine was used.

Is it really necessary to vaccinate children? Opinions differ!
Vaccination of children annually worldwide saves millions of lives. When it is appropriate to vaccinate a child? advice you can give doctor.

Vaccination is undoubtedly a successful tool to prevent the occurrence and spread of various infectious diseases in humans. The best way does not yet exist.

Why is it important to vaccinate children?

Vaccination is the safest and most effective way to achieve disease resistance (vaccinated child less susceptible to infection if it comes in contact with an infected person, and the benefits of protection from disease far outweighs the very small risks associated with immunisation).

Vaccination is not 100% guarantee the health of the child, it must be protected constantly. Especially, the child's body needs the support of the immune system. However, if enough representatives of this group of the population vaccinated, many of the infection can be transmitted from one person to another, and the disease gradually disappears. We are talking about the so-called collective immunity, which prevents the circulation of an infectious agent and protect some unvaccinated people.

It is assumed that without vaccination in our country die each year about 500 children and thousands suffer complications that carry diseases such as measles, whooping cough, diphtheria, etc.

Against what is instilled today?

Grafting is governed by the so-called schedule of vaccination, and begins with 9 weeks of the first dose of hexavaccine (vaccines against tetanus, diphtheria, whooping cough, haemophilia B, poliomyelitis and hepatitis b). The second dose is given after 3 months and after 4 months the third. After 15 months, children are vaccinated against measles, mumps and rubella (first dose), up to 18 months is vaccination fourth dose hexavaccine. In the period from 21 to 25 a month comes the second dose of vaccination against measles, rubella and mumps. In 5-6 years of age is the vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and polio.

What has changed recently?

Currently, routine vaccinations include vaccinations against pneumococcal infection and human papilloma virus (HPV vaccination against cervical cancer) in adolescent girls. Health insurance companies within their prevention programs recommend that parents also recommended additional vaccinations, such as againstrotavirus infection, encephalitis or meningitis C.

Optional vaccinations is the vaccine against pneumococcus, which is designed for children between the third and fifth month.

The impact of the vaccine and possible reactions

The vaccine can be administered orally or by injection. The risks of vaccination are much perevedeny benefits. Recently experienced a return of nearly forgotten diseases such as whooping cough and tuberculosis. Therefore, vaccination is, by far, makes sense. Common complications include raising the temperature to 39 degrees, irritation, tearfulness, local reactions such as redness or swelling up to 5 cm (just enough to put a cold compress) headache, sometimes the child may experience vomiting or diarrhea. Usually, however, the problems disappear after a few hours, no later than 2 days.