Of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and treatment

Diseases of the respiratory tract is the main feature

Infekcii verhnih dyhatelnyh putej simptomy i lechenie

Bacteria, respiratory illness, UDP... All these concepts mean one thing – diseases of the upper respiratory tract. The list of causes and manifestations sufficient volume, so let's look at what the respiratory infection, the treatment and medicines used in therapeutic methods which cure is most effective, what is the difference between viral and bacterial infections of the respiratory tract.

Respiratory diseases are the most common reasons for visiting General practitioners and pediatricians. This disease is mostly seasonal, with peak incidence for this disease, as viral and bacterial infections of the respiratory tract, is necessary for autumn and winter months. Diseases of the upper respiratory tract infection include, as a trivial illness and life-threatening condition.

In the majority of cases respiratory diseases (acute infectious disease) occur in children, but there is infection in adults with predominantly viral origin. Even in the absence of complications, the drugs of first choice often presents with antibiotics. One of the reasons for their use in children and adults, the requirements of the patient or the parents of the child, aimed at the best and effective treatment. It is clear that antibiotic therapy should be applied in case of bacterial infections. It is estimated that approximately 80% of cases the antibiotics used to treat such disease as acute respiratory infections and respiratory diseases. In children, the situation is alarming. Approximately 75% of cases drugs from the group of antibiotics are prescribed for inflammation of the upper respiratory tract. However, the so-called prophylactic antibiotic therapy administered for infections of the upper respiratory tract, accelerates and reduces the duration of treatment as prevent possible complications later. Therefore, in most cases, people without immunological disorders or other risk factors, without the presence of major chronic diseases recommended symptomatic therapy.

Of upper respiratory tract infection symptoms and treatment

Infekcii verhnih dyhatelnyh putej simptomy i lechenie

In uncomplicated upper respiratory tract infections and in immunocompetent people the basis for treatment is symptoms. Acute rhinitis, sinusitis, otitis media, pharyngitis and laryngitis in 80-90% of cases are caused by viruses. Antibiotic therapy in their clinical course, practically, has no effect. In cases where the disease is confirmed evidence of bacterial agents from selected biological material and the increase of inflammatory parameters prescribed antibiotics. In addition, long-term preservation of high (longer than a week) may be considered the involvement of bacteria. Under normal pathogens — Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Mycoplasma pneumonie a Chlamydia pneumonie – appointed aminopenicillin or cotrimoxazole, macrolides or tetracycline drugs.

Infection of the upper respiratory tract treatment of complications

Acute epiglottitis bacterial etiology and streptococcal sore throat are diseases that need penicillin antibiotics. In particular, in the case of epiglottitis is suitable hospitalization with parenteral introduction of penicillin broad-spectrum cephalosporin or II or III generation, the therapy is supplemented with corticosteroids.

Infections of the lower respiratory tract

Similar recommendations are used to treat lower respiratory infections such as bronchitis and acute bronchitis. Viral etiology is the most common, and is up to 85% of cases. But even in these cases, treatment with antibiotics, as children and adults, is not necessary, it is considered only in case of serious course of the disease or a person with immunodeficiency. If in the course of a long and severe illness will be proved the presence of intracellular pathogens (Mycoplasma pneumonia, chlamydia pneumonia) drugs of first choiceare macrolides, cotrimoxazole or doxycycline.

The most common infectious respiratory attacks include acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Although it is known that the deterioration can be caused by several non-infectious causes, in practice, antibiotics are also put in these cases. The etiological agent, according to many studies, in patients with COPD can be detected in 25-52% of cases. However, is questionable, causing the disease the bacterium Streptococcus pneumoniae or Haemophilus influenzae, which chronically colonize the respiratory tract (difficulty breathing) and leads to pathogenic exacerbations.

If there are infections of the upper respiratory tract, symptoms include the increased production of colored purulent sputum, breathing difficulty and shortness of breath along with bronhitichesky symptoms, and sometimes high temperature. Antibiotics indicated for the identification of inflammatory markers including C-reactive protein, leukocytes, sedimentation.

Sensitive acute phase reactant for distinguishing between bacterial and non-infectious causes of inflammation is procalcitonin. Its value rises in 3-6 hours, peak values are reached after 12-48 hours of being infected.

The most frequently administered antibiotics include aminopenicillins, tetracycline, generation macrolides – clarithromycin, azithromycin. Quinoline drugs are assumed to be in the treatment of infections, which was demonstrated by bacterial agents. The benefit of macrolides is a broad antibacterial spectrum, high concentration of antibiotics in bronchial secretions, good portability and relatively low resistance. Despite these positive aspects should not use macrolides as the first choice of antibiotics. No less important are such factors as the relatively low cost of treatment. Therapy usually lasts 5-7 days. Its efficacy and safety are comparable.


Infekcii verhnih dyhatelnyh putej simptomy i lechenie

Influenza is a viral infectious, highly contagious disease that affects all age groups – exposed to as a child of any age, and adult. After an incubation period, i.e. from 12 to 48 hours, fast onset manifested by fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, a feeling of weakness. The disease is accompanied by cough, upset stomach, and can cause other serious infectious complications. In adults who already suffer from certain chronic diseases, flu is the worst. Small children and the elderly are the most vulnerable group. It is estimated that in an average flu season there are about 850,000 cases. Need symptomatic treatment with bed regime. In the case of secondary complications or patients with serious risk of antibiotics are.


The main criteria for diagnosis of pneumonia and distinction from infections of the lower respiratory tract are the following factors: acute cough or a significant deterioration of chronic cough, shortness of breath, rapid breathing, high fever, lasting more than four days, new infiltrates on the chest x-ray. Many studies have shown that consistently the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in European countries is Streptococcus pneumoniae, in second place – hemophilic rod, Moraxella catarrhalis, staphylococci, rarely gram-negative bacteria.

In the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia are two approaches which are based on the findings of retrospective studies. We are talking about combination therapy with a beta-lactam antibiotic with macrolides or doxycycline, or of monotherapy hinolonam. In the first embodiment is used has a positive immunomodulatory effect of macrolides, which are effective also in cases of simultaneous infection by Mycoplasma pneumonia, chlamydia pneumonia, Legionella.

Mixed infection with the presence of more pathogenic microorganisms occurs in 6-13% of cases. If after 3 days there is no improvement of the clinical condition or the progression of x-ray data, it is necessary to revise the original version and change the antibiotics. To prevent this condition can a new sampling of biological material from the respiratory tract, including the bronchoscopic aspirates that the treatment was fully focused. In these cases, it is necessary to include not only the usual bacterial spectrum, but also often resistant strain is Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic bacteria.

With hospital-acquired pneumonia, in which an infectious agent comes from a hospital environment, it is often about the enterobacteria – Pseudomonas bacteria, the pneumococcus, Staphylococcus aureus, anaerobic bacteria. In this case it is important to early treatment for 4 hours, which initially is inappropriate. Typically, therapy involves a combination of aminoglycosides to cover gram-negative bacterial populations and medications, is effective in anaerobic pathogenic microorganisms and fungi.

Complications and risks of respiratory infections

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Among the most serious and life-threatening complications should be noted epiglottitis. In severe cases, can reach even to suffocation. Pneumonia is another serious disease, whose progress is accompanied by symptoms affecting the entire body. In some cases, very quickly develops a serious condition requiring hospitalization. To frequent complications of pneumonia include pleural effusion. Sometimes it can develop effusion. In case of these complications comes to the abatement of pain and the onset of impaired breathing because the lungs become oppressed with fluid, formed between the sheets of pleura. In some cases, is accompanied by pneumonia, lung abscess, and rarely gangrene in patients with immunodeficiency, or widespread bacterial infection.

Severe pneumonia can lead to sepsis and so-called septic shock. At the same time – fortunately rare complication is severe inflammation of the entire body with the risk of organ failure. In this case, it is necessary, artificial ventilation, introduction of a combination of very strong antibiotics and support of vital functions. It is expected that the relatively mild respiratory infections can be complicated by adverse effects of multiple risk factors of the person. The most common include chronic Smoking, including passive, age over 65 years, alcohol abuse, contact with children, Pets, bad social conditions, bad oral hygiene. Some people have chronic diseases – diabetes, ischemic heart disease, liver disease, kidney, immunosuppressive therapy for various other diseases represent a serious risk factor, which may, at the respiratory diseases complicate the situation and lead to life threatening condition.

Influenza vaccination

Voluntary vaccination and vaccination of risk groups remains the only effective preventive measure. Currently, there are three main types of influenza vaccines. They differ in composition, containing either inactivated virus, inactivated viral particles or antigens hemagglutinin and neuraminidase. Another difference lies in of reactogenicity and immunogenicity. The most commonly used is the inactivated trivalent vaccine of inactivated viral particles. The world health organization (who) recommends the use of trivalent vaccine from only two subtypes of influenza A and one influenza B. the subtypes annually, who, in particular, for the Northern and southern hemisphere.

Vaccination against pneumococcal infection

The primary source of pneumococcal infection are the bacteria pneumococcus, which differs more than 90 serotypes. Is considered a dangerous invasive pneumococcal infection, which causes pneumococcal pneumonia, meningitis, otitis media, sepsis, arthritis. Risk groups are persons over the age of 60 years and children under the age of 5 years. The source of infection is a sick person or a carrier of the pathogen, transmission of the disease droplets. The incubation time is short, within 1-3 days. Vaccination with pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is made to persons in medical institutions and homes for the elderly and long term sick. In addition, immunization against pneumococcal infection is indicated for patients suffering from chronic respiratory diseases, diseases of the heart, blood vessels, kidneys and when insulin treatment of diabetes. Should be vaccinated patients after organ transplant, people with cancer receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy.

Vaccination is the most commonly used 13-valent conjugate vaccine, containing polysaccharide serotype 13 or 23-valent vaccine.

In conclusion

Respiratory infections are very common and affect almost all categories of the population. The majority of victims being treated on an outpatient basis, and this trend is expected to expand in the future. One of the most important moments in the decision on therapeutic techniques is in the definition of reasonable to introduce only symptomatic treatment, or treatment with antibiotics is imperative. In particular, in the case of upper respiratory tract infections and acute bronchitis with no visible bacterial agent, is an effective combination of fever-reducing medicines, plenty of fluids and vitamins. Often the effect of this therapy is underestimated.

You should take into account risk factors of the person and the possible occurrence of complications. Currently, for the treatment of bacterial infections apply a variety of antibacterial drugs. In addition to the obvious advantages of this treatment is to be expected also adverse effects. They are individual, and each person can have different symptoms.

You also need to take into account the permanent risk of the spread of antibiotic resistance and increase the number of initially sensitive pathogens.

Skillful use of antibiotics can reduce the problem and prevent devaluation of thesepreparations'. Vaccination, healthy lifestyles and reducing risk factors mentioned above, people can reduce the incidence of and the risk of complications of respiratory infections.