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Intestinal infection in children symptoms and treatment

Kishechnaya infekciya u detej simptomy i lechenie

Viral intestinal infection in a child is one of the most common diseases. Therefore, it is not surprising that many parents are asking questions, what are the signs and symptoms of intestinal infection in children, how to relate the symptoms and treatment of intestinal infections in children how can I determine the infection and its type (is there a bacterial intestinal infection, acute intestinal infection or a viral infection in children), what is the treatment of intestinal infections in children, etc. Let's look at these issues, do not lose their relevance neither in winter nor in summer.

Acute intestinal infections in children can cause virus, bacteria, bacterial toxins, protozoans, worms or fungi, however, the problem can lead errors in the diet, the manifestation of food allergies or toxic reaction to food. Not least, it could be a noninfectious inflammatory disease affecting the digestive (intestinal) tract, diarrhoea and nausea – the most common symptoms of intestinal infections may represent a determining factor of metabolic disorders. However, most often intestinal infection in children symptoms in children presented with diarrhea. Why is this happening? What causes infection, how to treat an intestinal infection in children and to prevent its occurrence?

Diarrhea and fever may accompany the growth of teeth in a child (especially if fever and diarrhea occur for no apparent reason babies under a year). In this case, it does not have the intestinal infections in children the symptoms are more vivid.

In case of problems, in your opinion, caused by the growth of the teeth, last for a long time and bring severe discomfort to the child, ask the doctor how long these symptoms can last, how long lasts a fever, how to treat and what to treat painful gums and the accompanying symptoms. Some parents are interested in this drug as "Oki", but it should be remembered that this medication is not intended for children under the age of 6 years! In addition, it is not effective for conditions when the temperature rises due to the eruption of the teeth!

The baby and the child of preschool age (4-5 years) can also meet the problem with the evacuation in the form of constipation, accompanied by a stiff chair, in addition, there are cases of so-called pseudowire – problems liquid stool in small amounts.

The immediate cause of the diarrhea can be either increased release of water into the intestine and its inadequate absorption, or increased bowel movement. There are acute diarrhea, which most often occurs in children and with proper treatment, lasts up to two weeks, and chronic diarrhea, lasting more than two weeks.

Viral infection

Almost every child before the age of three years Dating a problem like a viral infection in children, there are many cases when the disease affects several times. The most common cause of infectious viral diseases are rotaviruses, adenoviruses, enteroviruses, coronaviruses. The infection is easily spread through direct contact between children and adults. Most often, infections are spread in groups, sometimes can affect even the child who is hospitalized and treated in the medical the children's Department.

Kishechnaya infekciya u detej simptomy i lechenie

Most quickly, the infection starts and spreads when there is insufficient personal hygiene. However, a certain type of virus can also be resistant to many disinfectants. The highest incidence of viral intestinal infections occurs in winter months. The disease affects newborns, but thanks to the antibodies against the virus they received from breast milk, as a rule, the disease does not cause discomfort to the child. Breastfeeding and antibodies in breast milk are important protective factors for prevention of this disease.


The disease usually can begin 1-3 days after exposure and can lead to the following manifestations:

  • loss of appetite,
  • elevatedtemperature,
  • fever,
  • vomiting, which over time adds watery diarrhea, sometimes with mucus and blood.

The vomiting eventually stops but is loss of appetite and diarrhea, continuing, usually, about 4-7 days. Child seems tired, refuses to eat and drink. In children of early age there is a risk of dehydration (dehydration) due to severe diarrhoea that requires hospitalization and intensive treatment. The healing process, in this case, includes the rehydration of the body through the introduction of special rehydration solutions.


Therapeutic measures depend on factors such as age and how severe the child's condition. They are based on dietary measures, which differ depending, again, on age and whether the baby is breastfed.

Kishechnaya infekciya u detej simptomy i lechenie

Breast-feeding during treatment is not interrupted. Breast milk contains essential and unique substance that protects the mucous membranes of the intestine and helps her to get rid of the culprit of the disease. Increased fluid loss that occurs with diarrhea, kompensiruet mentioned above rehydration solutions containing minerals. The solution is injected in an amount of 10 ml/kg of body weight of the child at each bowel movement together with the feeding. Feeding should be chilled, in small doses (1 teaspoon). It cannot be diluted with juices or nectars!

A child who is not breastfed, it is recommended that during the first 4 hours to give the rehydration solution in the amount of 30-50 ml/kg of body weight. You should then continue to give milk (formula milk), which the little patient had been drinking to the disease. It is advisable to prepare the milk, not the water, and on rice broth. It won't lose the calories, and the baby will digest it better. Replenishes loss of fluid re-admission rehydration solution in an amount of 10 ml/kg of body weight after each diarrheal stool.

Older breastfed kids, accustomed to non-dairy lures can diarrhea to vegetable soups, rice or mashed potatoes, grated banana, or Apple. Food must be soft.

A child older than 1 year food may begin similarly as for the younger kid without breast-feeding, i.e., ingestion of oral rehydration solution, and after 4 hours could be introduced complementary foods from mashed potatoes, Apple, carrots, banana, rice and poultry, older children – muffins, cookies. The diet is to limit fats. Milk products are introduced after reducing the frequency and quantity of stool.

How to cook rice and carrot broth?

Rice water

You will need: 250 grams of rice and 500 ml of water, suitable for infants.

Preparation: boil the rice until cooked and break into a mixer. Add the boiled water. Rice water can be sweetened with 200 g of grape sugar. Congee can also be prepared from soluble non-dairy rice porridge.

Carrot broth

You will need: 1 medium carrot (carrot should be fresh, with low content of nitrates!), 500 ml of water, suitable for infants.

Preparation: rinse well with fresh carrots, grate it on a coarse grater and rasarite (about 30 min). Stir and add the boiled water (500 ml). Don't add. For easy preparation of carrot broth, you can use ready-made baby food – carrot soup, which is diluted with water for bottle feeding or give the baby straight from the spoon.

Carrot broth can be combined with rice. Pharmacies are also available rehydration solution with added carrots and rice (for children from 4 months).

Beware of the popular Coca-Cola, juices, etc. – sugary drinks because of the high sugar content is suitable for the treatment of intestinal infections, they can even worsen the condition. In addition, they contain a very small amount of essential minerals. The consumption of tea or mineral water is often successful in mild diarrhea, when it comes to a great loss of minerals and fluids.

Special diet dairy mixes with a low content of milk sugar – lactose does not belong to the main therapeutic measures. In some cases they approach the transition to a normal diet. About using them better to consult with your doctor.

Antidiarrheal drugs

A shorter duration of diarrhoea contribute to the drugs, which are also associated with the unwanted substances in the affected intestinal loops and, thus, help to quickly eliminate them from the body (e.g., Smectite, charcoal). For the treatment they are suitable but not mandatory. In addition, to reduce the duration of diarrhea can help probiotics. Probiotic bacteria in dietary supplements or added directly to baby milk will help to restore healthy gut flora and mucous membranes, will adjust to normal intestinal functions.

The risk of dehydration

If you are able to control the diarrhoea, stools are frequent or accompanied by vomiting, can quickly reach to dehydration and disruption of the internal environment. The child should be examined by a doctor who will assess his condition and determine whether there is a need for additional therapeutic measures, if they can be done at home(out-patient), or young patient advisable is in the hospital because of the need for intensive treatment due to serious violations of the internal environment, threatening the baby's life.

Prevention of viral intestinal infection

Kishechnaya infekciya u detej simptomy i lechenie

Babies can be vaccinated, particularly against rotavirus. The vaccine is currently not covered by health insurance. It is a solution for oral administration. Served depending on the type of vaccine in 2-3 single dose, from 9 weeks of age with a 1-2 week interval. May be given simultaneously with the hexavaccine.

Bacterial intestinal infection in children

The most common bacterial cause of intestinal infection in children is Salmonella. In recent years, more than 95% of cases, is dedicated to a single serotype Salmonella enteritidis, which is mainly eggs, and foods made with them, as well as through cooked meat. A few percent of the infections belong to Salmonella typhi murium, and others are rare. Interpersonal transmission of Salmonella is rare because of the high infectious dose, the exceptions are newborns and infants whose infectious dose is much lower. The baby can become infected for example, from parents who are carriers of the bacteria.


The disease usually occurs as varying severity febrile gastroenteritis, with the following characteristics:

  • abdominal pain,
  • headache,
  • vomiting,
  • green chair (young children – often bloody),
  • perhaps dehydration.

From complications are most common:

  • erythemas,
  • serous arthritis,
  • febrile convulsion,
  • sometimes it can be even shown toxinfection encephalopathy, manifested by meningeal symptoms, headache and sometimes sleepiness.

Lumbar puncture, however, is negative. Unlike adults, children rarely hematogenous seeding (sepsis, meningitis, osteomyelitis, etc ..). These forms are usually inherent in the pediatric population patients with immunodeficiency. In the diagnosis of Salmonella from the intestinal forms is critical cultivation culture from the chair in case of suspected Salmonella and the first negative cultivation of appropriate sampling several times.

The number of cases of campylobacteriosis is currently rapidly approaching and salmonellosis in the last decade has increased more than ten times. This is probably connected with the increased consumption of poultry meat and improve the diagnostic methods. The main causative agent is the bacterium Campylobacter jejuni, a microaerophilic bacterium requiring special conditions for processing of soil.

The disease is especially nadovrazhnoe poultry meat (grilled chicken), the infection may also pass from kittens and puppies, more rare are cases of transmission through water, milk or between people. In contrast to rotavirus and Salmonella (48 hours), the incubation period of campylobacteriosis is longer – up to weeks.

Campylobacteriosis usually manifests itself as a hemorrhagic enterocolitis with the following symptoms:

  • fever,
  • abdominal pain,
  • stool with blood and mucus, which are present in smaller amounts than when salmonellosis and rotavirus (5-8 times),
  • vomiting is absent.

In addition to these most common causes in the etiology of bacterial diarrhea may be other bacteria or parasites. Gastroenterologicheskii symptoms can present when exposed to Staphyloccocus pyogenes aureus, Bacillus cereus and Clostridium difficile type A, cholera, infection, enteropathogenic and enterotoxigenic E. coli strains. Hemorrhagic enterocolitis can also cause Shigella, Yersinia, parasites – Entamoeba histolytica and the species Trichinella Spiralis.

Antibiotics are recommended for bacterial infectious intestinal diseases