The structure of the human gastrointestinal tract

Ctroenie cheloveka zheludochno kishechnogo trakta

A large part of the nutrients required for proper functioning of the body, comes along with the food. For the preparation of different foods to digestion, absorption and transfer of nutrients, removal of undigested food in the body there is a special system. The structure of the gastrointestinal tract is quite complicated, so as to select and filter out the necessary elements for the human body is a multi-step process, from the accuracy of passing which depends on human health.

Oral cavity

The first stage of food processing occurs immediately after contact with the oral cavity. First, there is a grinding of food in the process of chewing, then formed a ball connected with saliva. Chopped food ball easier passes into the stomach and the intestinal tract

In food process also involved the mucous membrane. It is full of different receptors that are responsible for the definition:

  1. Taste.
  2. Temperature.
  3. Quality of food.
  4. The correct consistency.

After defining the features of substance, which fell into the mouth, begin to form certain signals: they go to a certain part of the brain for analysis. If the food meets taste preferences and other parameters, starts work the salivary and other glands for special substances. They are necessary in order to nutritious weight without difficulty passed into the stomach for the initial chemical treatment.

Anatomy of the digestive tract of man is one of the most difficult. After chewing food is swallowed, the lump in the channel, which is called the throat. It has the appearance of a funnel. The internal cavity is lined with mucous membrane that facilitates the passage of the ball. The top wall is adherent to the base of the skull. In the area of the 6 and 7 vertebra, it tapers and becomes the beginning of the esophagus. It should be noted that SIP performs two main functions: associated with nutrition and respiration, air is supplied from the oral or nasal cavity. In this part is the path of the exhaust air to the lungs.


As previously noted, the throat gradually passes into the esophagus. He represented a channel of cylindrical shape, which consists of muscles. The length of the esophagus can be 22-30 inches. At the top and the bottom are the digestive sphincters. The work of these elements of the digestive tract lies in the overlap of the esophagus to prevent the backflow chewed mass. Muscle tissue presents a special membrane, under which there is a huge amount of secretions. These glands secrete a substance that moistens food to ensure its quick passage. Pushing the food mass is caused by contractions of muscle tissue, which has a wavelike nature. Such movement is achieved by reducing a part of the esophagus and relaxation, the change of the diametral size of the canal resembles a wave motion.

Primary digestion in the stomach

Ctroenie cheloveka zheludochno kishechnogo trakta

After mastication and passage through channels food comes use extension that can change its size if necessary. Is the stomach after the oesophagus, which defines a large number of diseases associated with improper diet. The connection with the esophagus occurs with dramatic holes, with the first section of the small intestine, the connection happens with the help of gatekeeper. The inner cavity of the body lined with mucous membrane, which has a huge number of different glands. Through them is the production of mucus and various enzymes, hydrochloric acid and other substances. If we consider the structure and purpose of the stomach we can say that his work relates to the mixing and partial digestion of food. Gastric juice has a primary chemical effect.

Special attention will be gastric juice. It is produced in special glands located in the mucosa. Includes:

  1. An enzyme called pepsin.
  2. Hydrochloric acid.

These substances dissolve the incoming food mass into smaller elements. Gastric juice has a greater impact on the protein, since under its action is the component of a split. Under the action of acid and enzymes food is digested and becomes a liquid like substance, which undergoes primary processing. In medicine is called the considered substance in the chyme. The stomach also has on the walls a kind of muscle, under which there is a reduction in the ejection of chyme.

The main processing in the small intestine

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The small intestine may have a length of up to 4.5 meters. It is located in the form of loops. The area of the inner cavity expands due to the presence of the huge number of villi. The juice intestinal tract of man stands out in this Department, as the internal cavity is filled with glands. People who assume that the digestion takes place in the stomach, wrong – the main work on the isolation and separation of nutrients takes place in this Department. The villi are responsible for the transmission of useful minerals in the blood and lymph, which already transportyou from all over the body. Move the chyme passes through the reduction of muscle tissue.

It should be noted that the small intestine is divided into:

1. Duodenum – the initial division, which receives the chyme from the stomach.

2. Jejunum – the middle section. Such name was given due to the fact that after the death of a person when opening the abdomen it is always empty.

3. Ileum – the last section is that many are not separated from the previous one, but yet significant differences exist – it is wider, thicker walls.

It is in these departments where primary processing of the incoming food, the separation of useful components from useless, and also the absorption of necessary elements in the blood and lymph.


The last part of the whole chain of the digestive system presented colon. In this area the tissue fluid and is added to the electrolytes absorbed by the body before the formation of feces from chyme. Length of the considered Department can reach 1.5 meters. When it is divided into the:

  1. Caecum. This initial section presents the use of land, the length of which can vary from 3 to 8 inches. The internal cavity is covered with peritoneum. At the junction of the small intestine with a blind there is a process which is called the Appendix. You should consider the point that the location of the Appendix can be quite varied.
  2. Colon. She shares another 4 divisions, is a major part of the colon.
  3. Rectum. This Department completes the digestive system. Such name was given due to the fact that the form of this Department is absolutely straight, so there are no bends. Purpose – retention of feces, and its elimination. The length of the latter Department may be 15-16 cm. The accumulation of feces occurs in the region of the ampoule of the rectum. Its diameter can vary in the range from 8 to 16 inches, the overflow size can be increased up to 30-40 cm.
Ctroenie cheloveka zheludochno kishechnogo trakta

The above scheme determines the characteristics of the process of allocation of nutrients from food. If a disease occurs in one division, may be disrupted the whole process. This is due to the fact that all the organs of the digestive system are interrelated. Example would be the violation of the integrity of the mucous membrane of the internal cavity of the stomach, leading to erosion of its walls secreted the gastric juice. Subsequently may develop a serious disease, which will bring significant discomfort.

In conclusion, we note that only a correct diet becomes the reason why the digestive system works properly and there are no problems with health. In today's world, a lot of products in the natural decomposition emit quite a lot of harmful substances adversely affecting the stomach and other digestive system.