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Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract the symptoms and treatment

Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract is the main feature

Zabolevaniya zheludochno kishechnogo trakta simptomy i lechenie

The term "gastrointestinal diseases" implies a very wide range of diseases of the stomach and intestines because of the size and complexity of a system such as the intestinal tract.

This article presents information on the most topical issues, such as:

  • diseases of the gastrointestinal tract the symptoms and treatment,
  • what disorder of the gastrointestinal tract could indicate the presence of a serious disease?
  • what are the symptoms of gastrointestinal diseases should pay particular attention to?

Violation of the gastrointestinal tract diseases which can be functional and organic, can be a reflection of many primary diseases that affect primarily other systems.

The digestive system begins in the mouth where through the saliva starts the digestive process. Continues esophagus, stomach, small and large intestine and the rectum. The digestive system includes some exocrine glands (pancreas, liver).

The digestive system is the nervous influence (sympathetic, parasympathetic) and hormonal by many substances, some of which are produced in the endocrine glands, and some create cells of the digestive system themselves.

Zabolevaniya zheludochno kishechnogo trakta simptomy i lechenie

The function of the digestive system is to process food into absorbable substances and their absorption, maintain water and mineral levels, the elimination of waste and indigestible substances from the body. The liver and pancreas have other very specific and complex functions in the management of the body.

Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the esophagus, most often, is gastroesophageal reflux disease. Also digestive system diseases include common disorders:

  1. Inflammation (non-infectious and infectious – often, people with impaired immunity).
  2. Diaphragmatic hernia.
  3. Ulcer.
  4. The impaired motor skills functional or organic (blocking or narrowing of the passage of the foreign body, tumors , scarring and inflammation).
  5. Achalasia.
  6. Benign tumor in the esophagus.

The division of gastrointestinal disease

Stomach trouble

Zabolevaniya zheludochno kishechnogo trakta simptomy i lechenie

The stomach is affected with various diseases, relatively, often, but, as a rule, a serious violation in most cases is no, so to treat such disorders is not difficult. One of the most common diseases are functional dyspepsia of the stomach and solar syndrome, the symptoms of the disease manifest as digestive problems without the presence of organic basis of the disease. Another disease that may suffer the stomach, it's inflammation (gastritis), which can be acute or chronic. Quite often people suffer from a peptic ulcer that occurs most often in Association with H. pylori infection. More rarely there is a violation, as gastropathy, which do not show signs of gastritis, but there are some changes in the mucous membrane, accompanied byillness digestive issues and sometimes bleeding. On the basis of this disease could be stomach ulcers. The stomach can also suffer from tumors, both benign and malignant.

Bowel disease

The small intestine is also relatively frequently suffering from disorders of its function, which is responsible for a large part of the absorption of food nutrients. These diseases have serious consequences for the organism. Malabsorption syndrome includes diseases which can be caused not only by malnutrition, but also from reduced production of digestive juices needed for the decomposition of nutrients in absorbable forms. Other diseases represented coeliac disease (celiac disease), infectious diseases (bacterial, viral, parasitic, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract of this nature tend to have diarrhea), autoimmune diseases (vasculitis, Crohn's disease) and tumors (very rare).

The colon often suffer from functional disorders (irritable bowel syndrome), diverticulosis, dysfunction of the colon also include constipation and diarrhea (infectious, non-infectious basis), ulcerative colitis, hemorrhoids and unfortunately, very common are tumors of the colon (adenocarcinoma).

Symptoms of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract

The most common manifestations of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract include pain, dyspepsia and motor deficits.

Abdominal pain is the most common manifestation. It is divided into:

  • somatic – caused by irritation of the abdominal wall, peritoneum and diaphragm, the pain is sharp, limited, localized, often accompanied by reflex muscle contraction (défense musculaire), leads to the sensitive branches of spinal nerves,
  • visceral – is caused by irritation of the internal organs (the voltage of the body or the muscular walls of the organs), the pain is dull and is less amenable to analysis are usually localized to the midline, its location does not correspond to the location of the body, leading to sympathetic nerves,
  • shooting – is called a strong incentive or anatomic organ damage (passage of stones, the clamping of the gut), the pain radiates to the surface of the body, to the places innerviruemah spinal nerves from the same roots that nourish the diseased organ, the typical direction of pain helps to determine its origin.

When assessing abdominal pain is observed:

  1. Character – is the pain dull, pressure, burning…
  2. Localization – the location of the pain may not coincide with the position of the body.
  3. Duration generally differs depending on the type of disease. Spasmodic pain last from a few seconds or minutes to hours, irritation of the mucous membrane manifests itself days or even weeks of pain.
  4. The rhythm alternates if the pain with periods of relief.
  5. Radiomania – is more important than localization, to determine the affected organ, the most common areas:
  • up from the epigastrium: the defeat of the lower esophagus, cardia of the stomach and upper part of the stomach (in the differential diagnosis necessary to exclude angina),
  • in the upper right upper quadrant: gastroduodenal ulcers, disorders of the biliary tract, pancreas,
  • below the right scapula: gallbladder disease,
  • in the upper left quadrant and the lower left scapula disorder of the pancreas, stomach, colon cancer,
  • between the shoulder blades: inflammation of the esophagus, the penetration of gastroduodenal ulcers,
  • Radiomania in the shoulder: lesions of the diaphragm, subphrenic abscess, splenic infarction, perforation of gastroduodenal ulcer,
  • in the groin: kidneys, urinary tract.

Colic is rhythmically repetitive, constantly otstupaya abdominal pain, of varying duration caused by the peristalsis of the hollow organs (spasm and relaxation of smooth muscles), increased at overcoming the obstacles of obstruction (biliary stones in the bile duct, kidney stones in the urinary tract , gastro – intestinal obstruction, dyskinesia).


Dyspepsia is a hard-to-define term. Used for brief expression disorders of gastrointestinal functional or organic origin or extragastrointestinal nature (metabolism, medications).

Upper (stomach) dyspepsia is represented by the following phenomena:

  • nausea,
  • vomiting,
  • eructation,
  • heartburn.

The lower (intestinal) dyspepsia is represented by the following phenomena:

  • abnormal bowel movements,
  • flatulence (waste gases),
  • flatulence (accumulation of gases in the digestive tract).


Manifested a sense of udivlenie when swallowing food. In accordance with the localization is divided into the upper or lower type. The most common causes are presented with ulcer or cancer of the esophagus, gastroesophageal reflux disease, spasms.

Paradoxical dysphagia is difficulty in swallowing liquids. Is a functional one.


Burning sensation behind the lower sternum, connected to the reflux of gastric contents and duodenal ulcers into the esophagus. Features challenges require the exclusion of angina.


Hasa complex reflexive nature, caused by irritation of the vomiting center.

In accordance with the causes of disease can be divided into:

  • Central toxic effects (acidosis, uremia), reaction to drugs (Digoxin, Morphine), psychogenic, intracranial hypertension (vomiting without nausea),
  • peripheral – gastroduodenal disease, gallbladder disease, otogenic disorders and during pregnancy.

The correct evaluation of vomiting from the standpoint of diagnostic evaluation requires a context for its occurrence and assessment of vomit.

  1. Formation – depending on the meal (time and type of food).
  2. Appearance – the color, the presence of food (fresh, overcooked), blood.
  3. Smell – sour indicates the presence of HCl, fecal – associated with intestinal obstruction.

Constipation and diarrhea

Constipation is a difficulty defecation, hard stool.

Zabolevaniya zheludochno kishechnogo trakta simptomy i lechenie

Diarrhea is the evacuation of liquid or watery stools more often than usual.

Examination of the person in both cases is subjective, which complicates the diagnosis.

  1. Estimated number of bowel movements, consistency, presence of ingredients associated with food intake.
  2. Evaluated feeling the urge to have a bowel movement, tinism.

The reasons may be functional, infectious, organic, always require a thorough assessment of the possible presence of colorectal cancer.

Gastrointestinal bleeding


Melena means liquid stool black, tarry appearance. Characterizes bleeding in the upper gastrointestinal tract (esophagus, stomach). Evaluation black stool can hamper the previous eating of food containing animal blood, some medications (containing iron or bismuth, charcoal).

Bleeding from the lower gastrointestinal tract is manifested by intestinal bleeding (blood is not digested). The most common cause is cancer of the colon and rectum, internal hemorrhoids and ulcerative colitis.


Manifested by vomiting of fresh or digested blood. Coloration depends not only on the intensity of bleeding, and to speed emptying of the stomach and the presence of HCl. Slow clearing and the action of hydrochloric acid causes a brown-black color, the color of black coffee.

The source of bleeding is most often varicose veins of the esophagus, gastric and duodenal ulcers, tumors and hemorrhagic gastropathy. The presence of blood in repeated, intense bouts of vomiting indicates a high likelihood of the syndrome Mallory-Weiss (lacerate – crack the mucosa of the distal esophagus).

Evaluation of hematemesis requires the exclusion of bleeding from other source (epistaxis, hemoptysis) or confusion after ingestion of coloring foods (blueberries, red beets) or medicines (activated carbon).

Hematemesis may occur simultaneously with meleney.

Treatment of digestive tract diseases

First of all, it should be clarified that in the event of signs of serious problems (bleeding, vomiting blood, melena), you should immediately contact a doctor!

Therapy of disorders of the gastrointestinal tract can be divided into two main approaches: non-pharmacological and pharmacological.

Non-pharmacological approach

Very important is the detailed definition of the human nature of the disease so that he might have to mentally cope. Thanks to information and cooperation, which is important in long-term care, you can achieve the best results.

A change in diet and nutrition

The exclusion of foods or their components, which cause discomfort. In relation to supply important fiber, drinking regime, regular intake of small portions of food with a predominance of carbohydrates. Often limited to or exclude a spicy food, milk (especially in large quantities per serving) and milk in its raw form, for example, dairy products, food made by frying and with a higher fat content.

In the specialized literature also mentions the possibility of the influence on gastrointestinal disorders hypnosis and psychotherapy.

Pharmacological approach

Drugs are selected according to the predominant symptom. Drugs, mostly, are considered:

  1. Antispasmodic.
  2. Antidiarrheal drugs.
  3. Antidepressants.
  4. Prokineticakimi drugs and laxatives.

Antidiarrheal drugs

This is the most suitable group of drugs for the treatment of irritable bowel with the presence of diarrhea. The most frequently prescribed Loperamide (Imodium) 2-4 mg up to 4 times a day, the drug slows the passage of food through the intestine, increases the absorption of water and ions, increases tone of the anal sphincter, which can lead to the partial removal of unpleasant accompanying effects in many people. It does not penetrate the blood-brain barrier and thus is more preferred than Diphenoxylate or Codeine. The second drug of choice is Cholestyramine, which can be usedwhen considering the etiopathogenesis of irritable bowel the proportion of bile salts.


Today available the following drugs:

  1. Spasmomen.
  2. Calcium antagonists, selective for the gastrointestinal tract.
  3. Trimebutine (peripheral opioid antagonist).
  4. Mebeverine (Duspatalin) with anticholinergic effect.

None of the tested drugs, however, is not rooted, which significantly reduces its application in practice. In this case, the long-term effectiveness of treatment is assessed by reduction of exacerbations, duration of symptoms and the appearance of remission.


Their reception justified conditionally coexisting psychological changes in patients with disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. These include:

  1. Sulpiride.
  2. Tianeptin (Coaxil).
  3. Amitriptyline.
  4. Benzodiazepines are considered only as a short-term solution.
  5. Other drugs – a very diverse group of substances, for which there is enough conclusive pharmacological studies, but their application in medical practice shall be based on substantial empirical foundations. These include pancreatic enzymes, peppermint, Cholestyramine, etc.


Patients with features of irritable bowel syndrome and common disorders of the gastrointestinal tract are extremely heterogeneous and large group in relation to the treatment, as therapists and specialists – gastroenterologists. Due frequenting appearance, often discussed irritable bowel syndrome. Objectifying the subjective complaints is the most difficult part which determines the classification and treatment.

In case of detection of symptoms indicating the presence of gastrointestinal disease, consult a doctor. It will help to determine the cause of the disease or refer for further investigation.