Bowel obstruction treatment at home
Obstruction of the large intestine, small intestine, and colon (ileus) is a disorder which is one of the serious disorders of the gastrointestinal system. Blockage can occur suddenly, with almost full health, characterized by rapid progression and if intestinal obstruction is left untreated, it can lead to fatal outcome.
- One Classification
- Two What are the causes of the disease?
- Three General symptoms and signs
- Four Diagnostics
- Five Mechanical ileus
- Six Reasons
- Seven Manifestations
- Eight Strangulation ileus
- Nine Volvulus
- Ten Therapeutic method
- Eleven Paralytic ileus
- Twelve Spastic ileus
- Thirteen Preventive measure
- Fourteen Caution.
Ileus can affect both thin and thick intestines. In line with this, is divided into:
- obstruction of the large intestine,
- obstruction of the small intestine.
Most often, the problem is caused by a mechanical barrier that prevents intestinal passage.
In accordance with the reasons the disease can be divided into the following groups:
Mechanical ileus occurs in connection with the presence of obstacles in the lumen of the intestine, in the wall or outside. The disease, moreover, may occur due to the digestive tube rotation around its axis or as the result of narrowing of the lumen of the intestine.
Functional (neurogenic) obstruction caused by disorders of the function of the nerves that nourish the intestinal wall. In this case, the intestinal wall is irritated or excessively or comes to her paralysis (respectively, spastic and paralytic ileus).
Diseases associated with the circulation of the abdominal wall, constitute the cause of such disorders, as vascular obstruction.
What are the causes of the disease?
As there is obstruction of the large intestine, small intestine and rectum? The obstacle to the movement of intestinal content the gut reacts by increasing peristalsis, making attempts to overcome an obstacle. Increased peristalsis takes different lengths of time, depending on where the obstacle is. As its location is closer to the anus, the longer the increased peristalsis. Going over an obstacle the contents of the intestine, the gut expands his motility stops, the wall weakens, this process continues as long as the activity of the bowel completely stops. The accumulation over an obstacle causing compression of the intestinal wall and, with her passing in her veins that provide the reabsorption of gases and liquids. Closure of the arteries is associated with higher pressure, occurs later, causes hypoperfusion of the intestinal wall and reduces the resistance. Bacterial toxins, products of disintegration of intestinal contents and bacteria penetrate into the abdominal cavity and cause inflammation of the peritoneum (peritonitis).
General symptoms and signs
Enhanced peristalsis above the obstruction causes colicky pain in the abdomen, which is facilitated with a stop peristalsis. The nerve endings and the irritation can cause such symptoms as constant pain in the abdomen.
In addition, the symptoms of the disorder include vomiting, this symptom may be a reflection of the location of obstacles near the stomach (high ileus), compression of the intestine or the accumulation of intestinal content. In that case, if the barrier is close to the rectum, vomiting occurs later. Stop waste of a chair and gases occurs most frequently in relatively low ileus in the ileum, located near the rectum.
In addition to the above signs, there are symptoms of dehydration, which comes as a result of vomiting, weakening of the intestinal wall, penetrating into the abdominal cavity of fluid and blood pooling in the intestinal venous system. Symptoms of dehydration include thirst, dryness of the tongue, the deterioration of the elasticity of the skin, severe weakness, and sometimes high temperature.
The survey process focused on rapid identification and accurate diagnosis, and timely decision about what to do and how to treat bowel obstruction. This is especially important if there is a mechanical ileus, complicated by strangulation, in the case ofvascular obstruction, when there is a threat of necrosis (gangrene) of the intestine.
In the process of research, sought answers to the following questions:
- There is obstruction of the colon or thin?
- Has a mechanical nature or paralytic ileus?
- Does the strangulation?
In case of appearance of such sign as kolikoobraznae spastic abdominal pain, vomiting, stop the waste of gas or stool, you should visit your doctor. He will examine you and if you find any problem, timely prescribe appropriate treatment.
On examination, the doctor finds swelling. Then palpation method determines increased the overall sensitivity, increasing the wall tension or soreness in the abdomen. With a stethoscope, first of all, bugged intestinal peristalsis, which then diminishes until it stops completely. When the mechanical movement of the abdominal wall felt a surge of liquid in stretched due to blockage of the intestine.
To confirm the diagnosis used x-ray examination of the abdominal cavity, the survey is conducted in the standing position and displays the fluid level present in the intestine. In determining the cause of the ileus plays an important role ultrasound or CT of the peritoneum.
This disorder is caused by obstruction of the intestinal lumen and its wall. Initially, the nutrition of the intestinal wall is not damaged. A special group of this disorder is strangulation ileus, when the bowel is clamped from the outside, including blood vessels and its nerves.
Primarily, the root causes are hidden in the presence of malignant tumors of the colon and rectum. They are, in most cases, the left colon. Cancer develops slowly and, thus, the lumen of the intestine gradually clog. As a rule, manifestations submitted by the bloating and loose stools, which tend to alternate with constipation, but the obstruction itself may also constitute the first symptom.
Another reason often is the penetration into the fistula of the intestine gallstones. This phenomenon occurs mainly in the older age category with the existing problems with the gall bladder. In addition, they have to this condition may be reached due to the consumption of hard to digest foods or a lack of fluid. This leads to constipation – the conditions also support the lack of movement.
Blockage of the intestine can be caused by the introduction of the upper part of the intestine in the lower division invagination.
Extraintestinal causes blockage involves the occurrence of adhesions following an inflammatory process or surgical intervention, the excesses of the intestine or hernia incarceration. To obstruction can lead to penetration or compression of abdomen malignant neoplasm of other nature (e.g., gynecological).
Abdominal tenderness is colicky in nature, alternated with healthy periods. The duration of the interval between colic is directly related to the severity of the state (long duration – worst prognosis). If the barrier is within the upper intestine, first of all, there is a symptom like nausea, then vomiting of gastric contents and intestinal contents (a dark liquid, smelling of faeces).
Development obstacles in the colon occurs over several weeks of disease manifestations are less pronounced. Among the first signs may be noted overcrowding in the abdomen, irregular bowel movements and flatulence. Pressive pain in the abdomen is called an extension of the intestine, colicky – an increase of peristalsis due to obstacles.
Hernia (internal and external), post-inflammatory and postoperative adhesions can cause strangulation of a loop of the intestinal tract. Along with obstruction of the lumen leads to clamping of the blood vessels providing blood flow to the gut wall. As a result, it may be asymptomatic clamping, as walls, or the whole intestine.
With a more severe course of the disease, occurs sudden and sharp pain in the abdomen, which accompanies a gag reflex. Symptoms include anxiety, sweating, feeling of palpitations, and sometimes even fainting. When insufficient blood circulation comes to a rapid withering away of the intestine into the abdominal cavity penetrate the bacteria, irritating the peritoneum. In addition to disorders of intestine peritonitis develops.
The disease occurs due to the rotation of some part of the stomach or intestines around the axis, in perpendicular direction to its course. This condition leads to a narrowing of the blood vessels and as a result, to necrosis of a certain part of the intestine and, then, to the breakdown of permeability. The causes can hide in congenital long mesentery, the S-shaped loop or post-inflammatory andpostsurgical adhesions.
Treatment of intestinal obstruction of this nature, in most cases, surgical. During the operation is removed or bypassed obstacle.
If diagnosed internal intestinal obstruction, the intestine is cut and the obstruction removed. In case of detection of tumor-affected part of the intestine is removed, restoring the integrity of the healthy parts is carried out by establishing the anastomosis, or is the output of the intestine to the outside (called a stoma).
When volvulus, intussusception and strangulated hernia requires timely operative intervention, because there is a high risk of stopping the blood supply to the intestinal wall and necrosis. Carried out the removal of the affected part, the healthy ends are reconnected.
Violation of the functionality of the nerves in the intestinal wall leads to its rapid weakening (professionally this condition is called paralysis) and loss of momentum that is necessary for proper intestinal passage.
The most common causes lurk in surgical interventions in the abdominal cavity due to stop peristalsis, in most cases, lasts for 2-3 days.
Early on the state of human health is relatively good, he feels bloating, mild abdominal tenderness, sometimes it can be distressing flatulence and irregular stools. As soon as weakened intestine is widened, the condition worsens. Often there is vomiting.
This bowel obstruction treatment appoint conservative. The mainstay of treatment is represented by addressing the root causes of the disease. Treatment is performed by inserting a special probe (this is done through the nose), which sucks the accumulated intestinal contents. The resulting lack of fluid kompensiruet due to intravenous rehydration solution. Restoration of intestinal peristalsis promotes movement and medications that strengthen the intestinal wall.
Due to spasm of the muscles of the intestine comes to its contraction, which acts like a mechanical barrier. This disease is rare. The causes can hide in the nervous system diseases, reflex spasms, spinal injury, biliary and renal colic.
The symptoms are similar to signs of mechanical ileus, and presented colicky abdominal pain, vomiting and stop peristalsis.
Treatment involves taking medicines that weaken the spasms, the so-called spasmolytic drugs. Differential diagnosis is necessary to exclude mechanical ileus.
Often the cause of disorders of obstruction are postoperative adhesions in the peritoneum. Their best prevention is the proper technique of the operation. If there is a possibility of laparoscopic surgery, use it. The whole process is more gentle on the body, in addition, leaves so much of postoperative adhesions as a normal surgery.
If there is a hernia, the need is timely surgery. Otherwise, it threatens the clamping of the intestine and, as a consequence, the operation urgently. Surgery a small hernia is a lesser stress to the body than the removal of a large hernia.
Elderly people with limited movement constipation can lead to stages of mechanical obstruction. It is therefore important to ensure adequate consumption of fiber and liquids, and everyday movement (at least, exercise on the bed), which promotes peristalsis.
The prognosis depends on the underlying disease, the duration of intestinal obstruction, concomitant diseases and age. Mortality from disease in the range of 10-25%.
This article is just informational. Ileus is a serious disorder that can lead to a fatal outcome. Therefore, the first manifestations of this disease be sure to consult a specialist, which will confirm or refute the suspicion and, if necessary, will prescribe a suitable treatment.