The human intestines — Diseases of intestines, symptoms and treatments
The General structure of the Anatomy of the human body has a very complex structure.
A set of systems, individual organs and every cell inside runs with the precision of atomic clocks. Problems failure of this mechanism do medicine, armed with new techniques and technologies, progressing from year to year.
Externally, our body consists of the torso, limbs and head. Inside are the organs which we cannot see, but their role is incomparably great.
A huge part to play in our intestines, which is included in the area of the digestive system. The length of the intestine in the adult, can reach four meters or more. It is quite large and is divided into the small intestine and colon.
The human intestine, which is called slim, is divided into several sections: the duodenum, skinny, iliac.
Duodenum the first after the stomach comes into the chain of digestion and the size of the name. The twelve fingers of the cross-section of our hands. This is about thirty centimeters long and a diameter of four to five, the shape of a horseshoe. The length of this intestine, as in adults, and the little man is insignificant, his role is huge.
Here begins intestinal digestion, and introduced pancreatic enzymes, regulates the composition of the incoming digestive substance. The structure of the mucous membrane resistant to gastric acid, bile and certain enzymes.
Next section is the jejunum, which has two-layer structure of smooth muscle. The external muscles located along the inner breadth.
Due to this structure, the reduction of the walls of the intestine allows you to speed up or slow down the process of assimilation of substances. The composition determines the speed of progress. The length of the middle division to five feet. Scientists have found that women intestine is arranged so that it is shorter than the male.
Most likely, this is due to physiology, women nature gave more space because their womb is targeted to the content of the fruit inside.
And because of this, despite the differences, the functionality of their organs far exceeds the same functions as men. The area of the suction is increased due to the circular or transverse folds common to the next division of this body. As in the ileum, there are rare enzyme called enterocytes.
These particles break down foods into simple amino acids and is isolated from part of the fatty acids secreted glucose. Pure fatty acids are absorbed and transferred to the liver through the structure of the capillaries that is responsible for the circulation of lymph.
The structure of the ileum similar to the jejunum of the preceding. Only markedly reduce the diameter to three inches, which helps slow the passage of the digested mixture and to improve absorption. The blood supply to this Department is much stronger than the previous and the walls a bit stronger and thicker.
The function of the small intestine
The small intestine is arranged so that it could absorb the maximum amount of nutrients out of the digestive tract. The area of the useful surface, in addition to folds, enlarged villi. They are covered with special epithelial cells, improving the absorption process.
The most important vital function is to develop neurotensin. He regulates us drinking and food reflex, that is signals about what is missing in humans.
Each Department, like this one, has adjustable partitions that prevent the mixing of contents of individual departments. In addition to the blood supply is observed the presence of large number of lymphatic and nerve endings.
Production of hormones – a special feature of the fabrics of this Department of digestive and attributing it to the composition of the endocrine system. The main part of the hormones are reproduced in the first two and negligible in the last division of this part of the intestine.
The final digestion
The final division of the digestive system is the area of the colon. Half meter length – no limit, and the diameter five to seven centimeters.
The main segment of the colon think colon Department. It is divided into a downward and an upward region, there is a cross region and sigmoid part.
The Appendix and cecum are also included in the composition of this last section. Rectum completes all of the digestive procedure, the withdrawal of the remnants out through the anus.
The colon does not contain villi, muscle, constituent, smooth and longitudinal. Here the remains of the food mass. Its length is about five feet. Region colon the latest jump achieve processing that is still left with the help of special enzymes.
The selection of a special mucus promotes better movement of internal masses. The division of the colon is formed, the formation of fecal masses with the further conclusion ofof the body through the anus. Here is the absorption of fiber, balances fluids and salts.
Separate unnecessary plot have long considered Appendix. He looks like "blind" the tank a few centimeters in length. In the animal organism its participation noted earlier. The man he accepted as useless. But in the course of the experiment, the group of children it was removed.
The result has been a decrease in immunity.
Now he is considered a breeding ground for beneficial bacteria. An unwanted consequence of the operation is when filling of the pouch and inflammation of the surrounding lymph nodes.
The operation is simple, but time has not carried out the intervention, can be fatal. Surgical dissection of this process leads worldwide.
The intestine in humans contains about fifty trillion bacteria. It's more the total number of cells in our body.
Microorganisms mutually beneficial co-exist with us, help to digest food, fight with violators of the digestive flora. Divided into two main types: anaerobes and aerobes.
Anaerobic bacteria is bacteria that extract energy without oxygen. There are macro-organisms included in this group.
Aerobes – organisms that require oxygen, for energy. The basis of the ability to perform oxidation processes with participation of molecular oxygen.
Research of California scientists has shown that bacteria in our intestines have a feedback with our food preferences and Vice versa, and even affect the nerves of micron level, sending signals to our brain. Coast residents will discover microorganisms, used to sea food, then, will meet the inhabitants of the continental latitudes.
Keep in norm
The health of the body depends on maintaining the intestines at the proper level. Products used by us is directly proportional to the decent functioning of this important organ.
Environmental pollution, etching poisons of alcohol and tobacco products, overuse of antibiotics, use of antibiotics, the use of large amounts of sugar and carbohydrates cause a negative shift the normal function of the intestine. The cause of the disorder and can serve as a stress.
Power adjustment helps to normalize the microflora. Fruits and vegetables rich in fiber and pectin, whole grain products, dairy products – all of which help to cope with a number of disorders.
Food should be varied and include proteins and fats of vegetable and animal origin. It is better to eat small portions and drink more pure water. The length of the intestine of any person, includes the divisions of processing, in a clear sequence, technologically accurate digestive plant.
Freshness of food consumed should be paid special attention. Bacteria in large quantities are in the external environment and not all will manage our internal helpers.
To poisoning is very simple and will not save the total length of the intestine, with all protective functions. Stomach some can digest nails, but there are a number of bacteria and toxic substances of natural and anthropogenic origin, which not only unsettle for some time, and will cause serious diseases, cancerous growths and can even result in death. This will never happen if you are attentive to yourself and your family.
Useful physical activity is not superfluous, since the work of the muscles and ligaments are enhanced all metabolic processes, improves mood, and increases craving for life, and all that we sometimes lack.