Bowel disease symptoms and treatment

Disease of the colon, and diseases of the small intestine, the most famous of which is probably cancer, affect mainly people in the developed countries. Like a number of other civilization diseases, diseases of the colon (and thin) are in close connection with the lifestyle change, especially in relation to the eating habits of the population of these States. Change your diet in accordance with the principles of healthy eating for many is a thing absolutely inconceivable. For this reason, felt thin and thick bowel disease which is described in this article.

Zabolevanie kishechnika simptomy i lechenie

In addition, also consider what are the most common bowel disease symptoms, diagnostic methods and treatment options.


Our country is on the list of countries with a high incidence of cancer of the colon and rectum, at present, also occupies an unenviable place in the world statistics…

Colorectal cancer is the most common malignancy of the gastrointestinal tract. As with most diseases, you may encounter the gut, cancer of the colon fully understood, not all aspects leading to the formation of tumors. Heavily influenced by genetic predisposition, high-risk group, therefore, there are those people whose close relatives have had cancer or suffer from genetic disorders, such as family polyposis adenomas. The risk of cancer increases with age, people over the age of 50 years is recommended for regular blood tests, on the basis of which it may be possible to detect the tumor.

As mentioned in the introduction, the important role played by the composition of food consumed. Detrimental effect on tumor formation has, in particular, excessive consumption of animal fats than vegetable fats, too much fried, smoked and roasted red meats, which is typical for the population of our country. Preventing tumors, on the contrary, contribute vitamins and minerals, undervalued component of food remains, the fiber is contained mainly in fruits, vegetables and whole grain foods.

In addition to a balanced diet in the prevention of colon cancer the important role regular medical examinations. This especially applies to people with an increased risk of tumour formation, individuals who turned 50 years of age, examinations are recommended despite the absence of genetic predisposition. Most tumors of the intestine arises from glandular polyps (adenomas), which are formed by dividing the excess of mucosal cells. A polyp can for a long time not to cause any health problems, the risk of a malignant tumor arises in the moment when he starts to bleed. Blood in the stool of the patient, however, may not be noticeable, because sometimes it appears in small quantities. Other symptoms of intestinal cancer nature may not be significant enough to warrant seeking medical help. Signs of bowel disease in the case of the presence of the tumor is represented by the emptying disorders, in particular, alternation of constipation and diarrhea, increased flatulence or occasional pain in the bowels, caused by its poor throughput.

Therefore, tests for occult blood are the fundamental component for the detection of cancer. In the case of a positive result, it is necessary to conduct a full examination of the bowel. The main examination is the endoscopy or the colonoscopy. This is done using a flexible hose, which allows you to carefully examine the state of the intestinal mucous membrane, to detect any polyps or tumors and to take tissue samples for further testing. Detected polyps should be removed.

In the case of colorectal cancer is usually resection, a surgical procedure in which the tumor along with the adjacent partintestine is removed completely. The method of treatment depends on the severity of the disease, chemotherapy is also used, in the case of colon cancer, finds its application and radiotherapy.

Despite the possibilities of modern medicine, cancer of the bowel is a disease with high mortality. One should not underestimate the importance of preventive examinations, which will contribute to early detection of the disease and, thus, provide more opportunities for its treatment.

Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis

These two diseases which have some common characteristics, belong to the group of inflammatory bowel diseases. The causes of their occurrence is not clearly explained. They probably include the effects of several factors. It was shown hereditary effects, the influence of environmental factors and immunological disorders. Triggers can be such things as inflammation, infectious diseases, stress, use of certain medications, an unbalanced diet, can affect also the travel abroad, it is likely that this factor is associated with unusual local cuisine.

Both bowel disease and their symptoms are relatively long, are characterized by periods of calm, which usually prevails, and Renaissance period of the disease.

Crohn disease

Zabolevanie kishechnika simptomy i lechenie

Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, usually the small intestine (50%), less of the colon (30%), the most affected are rarely the esophagus and oral cavity (5%).

The disease occurs as a result of an immune process and genetic predisposition. Trigger factors can sometimes be bacterial or viral infection. Shown are usually aged 20 to 40 years. Were demonstrated greater incidence among women than among men, in addition, showed significant geographical differences. In particular, in the industrialized countries of the Northern hemisphere, Crohn's disease occurs much more frequently.

Prevention and risk factors for Crohn's disease

Against the disease, unfortunately there is no guaranteed prevention.

Discusses the harmful effects of diet with excess refined sugars and lack of soluble fiber, which comes to the violation of the natural composition of the intestinal flora.

A similar effect is the frequent use of antibiotics.

Acute deterioration or exacerbation of the disease is caused by Smoking, NSAIDs (Brufen, Aspirin, Diclofenac...) and hormonal contraceptives.

People in families where there is/was present Crohn's disease, should be monitored by a specialist, which will allow to diagnose diseases at an early stage. They have a much higher risk of developing the disease. The only way to prevent a more severe course of the disease is to identify the early symptoms that should not be underestimated.

Signs and symptoms

The symptoms of bowel problems of this nature tend to be chronic, with alternating periods of outbreaks with periods when the person is not experiencing any difficulties.

Most people have a period of the outbreak is characterized by mild to moderate activity. Symptoms of bowel disease include abdominal pain, diarrhea, prolonged moderately high temperature fatigue, the person starts to lose weight. May appear vomiting, convulsions, stopping the withdrawal of said gases rarely seen blood in my stool (this symptom more typical for the other, although very similar inflammatory diseases – ulcerative colitis).

If these problems for some time again we should not blame poor diet or poor digestion. It is advisable to consult a doctor who will direct on the necessary tests. Better come in the early stages of the disease and begin to treat it or eliminate it and thus unnecessarily torment.

Some people have symptoms predominate in other areas of the body. They may appear with pain in the joints, kidney stones and gall bladder, inflammation of the iris or a skin disease with erythema.


The task of the doctor in regard to the diagnosis lies in the differentiation of this disease from ulcerative colitis, since both of these intestinal diseases have similar symptoms, it also points to the similar mechanism of the formation of the disease. Ulcerative colitis, however, never affects the small intestine.

The diagnosis is primarily based on clinical symptoms, colonoscopy and radiography. In rare cases (5-10%) lesions of the colon fails to accurately determine which of these two diseases is present. Crohn's disease in the early days can occur acutely as appendicitis, which, however, easy to distinguish.


What is the treatment of Crohn's disease? First of all, it is a long process, because even in the period of improving the condition requires supportive therapy. The choice of therapeutic strategy depend on the localization process, the extent of involvement and disease activity.

It is generally recommended that a soft diet with physical activity, individually valued ataccordance with the General condition. This does not mean that people should be constantly confined to bed, are advised to avoid sports and physically demanding activities. Sometimes, because of this disease will require changes in the work place.

Zabolevanie kishechnika simptomy i lechenie

In addition, an adequate diet, including all nutrients and energy limited in proportion to physical activity. In severe cases of outbreak is introduced a certain food with the food probe directly into the small intestine, in order not to burden the intestines machining. An extreme option is parenteral nutrition which bypasses the gastrointestinal tract, when a person gets all the nutrients, vitamins and minerals in the venous system.

In the case of those forms of disease in which due to the inflammation narrows the digestive tract, caution should be exercised with coarse indigestible food residues (e.g., the pulp of oranges, the husk of grains). It is also good to track which foods exacerbate the problem and subsequently to avoid them. Positive effect, on the contrary, can provide the unsaturated fatty acids contained in fish.

The doctor usually prescribes Mesalazine, which is 5-amino salicylic acid with anti-inflammatory action and thus affecting the immune processes responsible for the occurrence of the disease. They operate mainly at the local level, so that the doctor chooses the form of the drug given the fact that the active substance is released only in the place where it is localized inflammatory process. Therefore, there might be medicines in the form of suppositories and enemas, but more often is in the form of tablets. Mesalazine is used in lower doses and the retreat activity of the disease.

Some doctors prescribe Sulfasalazine, but this drug is more likely to last, because it was proven to increase the incidence of adverse reactions.

With a more severe course of the disease are injected corticosteroids (e.g., Prednisone) in one-time higher dose, which is gradually reduced. Given the wide range of side effects, the drugs in this group are not suitable for maintenance therapy. They can be added to immunosuppressants (Azathioprine, Cyclosporine) through which the dose of corticosteroids is reduced. Their effect will be visible after 6-8 weeks of treatment, which should be kept in mind and not to expect an immediate therapeutic effect.

For maintenance therapy the doctor may prescribe probiotics. These live microorganisms beneficial effect on human health, and lately have also shown a positive effect in the treatment of intestinal inflammation.

Ulcerative colitis

Unlike Crohn's disease, this disease affects the rectum and always some part of the neighboring colon. Depending on the extent of damage there are the following forms:

  • mild – affects the rectum and the S-shaped loop of bowel,
  • the average shape is represented by the lesion, approximately half of the colon,
  • severe form is characterized by lesions of the entire colon. This defeat is continuous, i.e. without the healthy part.

Another difference is the degree of damage to the intestinal wall. In this respect, the defeat of bowel symptoms and treatment for Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis differ. In Crohn's disease it is essential when ulcerative colitis occurs only a violation of the intestinal mucosa. As a result, usually do not appear abscesses and fistulas.

The symptoms of this disease are very similar to the previous case: abdominal pain, diarrhea, often containing blood or mucus, fever, malaise and nausea.


If the person complains of the difficulties described above, it is necessary to undergo a series of examinations. First of all, makes an analysis of blood in patients with inflammatory bowel disease show anemia, increased sedimentation, and elevated levels of white blood cells and platelets. This is followed by a stool test and endoscopy. In the first stage is quite simple rectal examination (rectoscopy), in the future, if necessary – of the entire colon (colonoscopy), together with sampling for microscopic examination. In the case of Crohn's disease should and endoscopic examination of the upper gastrointestinal tract. In some cases, also require the use of x-rays.


Zabolevanie kishechnika simptomy i lechenie

The method of treatment of the disease depends on the condition in which it is currently illness, and its main goal is to prevent new outbreaks and to keep it under control. In most cases, used aminosalicylates, which are modified by inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. At higher disease activity are used corticosteroids, which have a pronounced anti-inflammatory action, their disadvantage is that, unfortunately, some side effects (hypertension, osteoporosis).

The immune system can create antibodies,destroying its own tissue, in such cases, the treatment is carried out with the use of immunosuppressive drugs that block its activity.

Part of the treatment process is properly prepared diet that should be individualized for each person. In the acute phase of power supply should be carried out using a stomach tube or by intravenous infusion. With frequent diarrhea should not forget about the consistent replenishment of fluids, this should not be stomach irritation. For this reason, not suitable sparkling mineral water, it is also important to drink the proper temperature, which should not be too hot or too cold.

In mild or moderate inflammation to limit the number of liquid stools antidiarrheal drugs are used, severe inflammation because of the risk of toxic exposure is not recommended!

The last option for the treatment of acute inflammation is surgery. In its course removes the affected part of the colon, if necessary, the entire colon. The small intestine needs to be connected directly to the anal canal or removed through the abdominal wall.

Diverticular disease of the colon

This is another disease in a number of diseases of civilization, which is caused mainly by the change in eating habits of people in developed countries. Despite the fact that, as in previous cases, not all the causes of diverticulitis it is known, it is believed that the cause is the unbalanced composition of the food, especially inadequate intake of dietary fiber.

The disease especially affects people over the age of 40 years, in recent years, however, it records the increase in the number of cases in young individuals. It is assumed that certain forms of diverticulitis suffers 1/3 of the population of developed countries aged 40 to 60 years, while among people older than 70 years – even more than half.

The disease is characterized by the appearance of diverticula (pouches) in the colon, in particular, in its left half. In these bags it is easy to accumulate feces, which remains inside, and thus not continue the movement of the colon to the rectum. Inside the diverticulum stool gradually thickens and irritates the mucous membrane, which can lead to inflammation and, as a result, the development of complications.


If the disease is in the resting phase, the symptoms may be unclear. In Calais, there is some amount of mucus, a person suffers from bloating and constipation. Noticeable symptoms that lead to detection of disease often appear only with the development of complications. In case of inflammation manifested by abdominal pain, mostly left side, sometimes pain in the back and sacrum, increased body temperature, loss of appetite, accompanied by nausea or vomiting.

For bleeding from the intestine indicates blood in the stool. Its amount depends on the degree of damage.

A narrowing of the intestine that is the result of repeated inflammation of a diverticulum, is manifested by increased bloating, constipation until the complete stop of the release of gases and stool.


The survey, which is based on the symptoms the person, with palpation determined the condition of the stomach, measured body temperature, then a blood test and on the basis of the results detected a possible inflammation.


If the disease is in the resting phase, without any major complications, treatment is based especially on food with high dietary fiber content. Sufficient fluid intake and regular physical activity are other factors that improve the human condition and prevent the development of complications.

In the case of serious complications it is important to quickly seek professional help. A number of additional studies, treatment with antibiotics or surgical treatment.